Advertisement

Drosophila Cellular Immune System: Dorothy Encodes a UDP Glycosyltransferase

  • Z. Zhou
  • A. Rodriguez
  • C.-Y. Wu
  • D. A. Kimbrell
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 484)

Abstract

Immune defense in Drosophila has humoral and cellular components that act effectively to control infectious organisms through the production of antimicrobial proteins and the phagocytosis and encapsulation of invading organisms (reviewed in 9). The main tissue of humoral immune defense is the fat body, which corresponds to the mammalian liver. Cellular immune defense is mediated by the hematopoietic system, which consists of hemocytes and lymph glands.

Keywords

Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus Hematopoietic Organ Dorsal Vessel Bithorax Complex Melanotic Tumor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Abrams, J.M., Lux, A., Steller, H. and Krieger, M. (1992) Macrophages in Drosophila embryos and L2 cells exhibit scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 10375–10379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barret, J.W.; Krell, P.J. and Arif, B.M. (1995) Characterization, sequencing and phylogeny of the ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase gene from two distinct nuclear polyhedrosis viruses isolated from C. fumiferna. J. Gen. Virol. 76, 2447–2456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Burchell, B. and Coughtrie, M.W.H. (1989) UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. Pharmac. Ther. 43, 261–289.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Clarke, E.E., Tristem, M., Cory, J. and O’Reilly, D.R. (1996) Characterization of the Mamestra brassicae multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (egt) gene. J. Gen. Virol. 77,2865–2871.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gateff, E. (1978) Malignant and benign neoplasms of Drosophila_melanogaster. In Ashbumer, M. and Wright, T.R.F. (eds.), Genetics and Biology of Drosophila. Academic Press, New York, Vol. 2B, pp. 181–275.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gateff, E. (1994a) Tumor suppressor and overgrowth suppressor genes of Drosophila melanogaster. Developmental aspects. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 38, 565–590.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gateff, E. (1994b) Tumor suppressor genes, hematopoietic malignancies and other disorders of Drosophila melanogaster. In Beck, G. et al. (eds.), Primordial Immunity: Foundations for the Vertebrate Immune System, The New York Academy of Science, New York, Ann. NY Acad. Sci. Vol. 712, pp. 260–279.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gonzalez-Reyes, A. and Morata, G. (1990) The developmental effect of overexpressing a Ubx product in Drosophila embryos is dependent on its interactions with other homeotic products. Cell 61, 515–522.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hoffmann, J. A. (1995) Innate immunity of insects. Curr. Opin. Immunology 7, 4–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Iyanagi, T, Haniu, M., Sogawa, K., Fujii-Kuriyama, Y., Watanabe, S., Shively, J.E. and Anan, K.F. (1986) Cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding 3-methyicholanthrene inducible rat mRNA for UDP-glucoronosyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 261, 15607–15614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Karch, F., Weiffenbach, B., Peiffer, M., Bender, W., Duncan, I., Celniker, S., Crosby, M. and Lewis, E.B. (1985) The abdominal region of the bithorax complex. Cell 43, 81–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kirkpatrick, R.B., Matico, R.E., McNulty, D.E., Strickler, J.E. and Rosenberg, M.R. (1995) An abundantly secreted glycoprotein from Drosophila melanogaster is related to mammalian secretory proteins produced in rheumatoid tissues and by activated macrophages. Gene 153, 147–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Klein, P., Kanehisa, M. and DeLisi, C. (1985) ALOM method to detect potential transmembrane segments. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 815, 468.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kren, B.T., Parashar, B., Bandyopadhyay, P., Chowdhury, N.R., Chowdhury, J.R. and Steer C.J. (1999) Correction of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase gene defect in the Gunn rat model of Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I with a chimeric oligonucleotide. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 10349–10354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lindsley, D.L. and Zimm, G.G. (1992) The Genome of Drosophila melanogaster. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mackenzie, P.I., Owens, I.S., Burchell, B., Bock, K.W., Bairoch, A. et al. (1997) The UDP glycosyltransferase gene superfamily: recommended nomenclature update based on evolutionary divergence. Pharmacogenetics 7, 255–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mastick, G.S., McKay, R., Oligino, T., Donovan, K. and Lopez, A.J. (1995) Identification of target genes regulated by homeotic proteins in D. melanogaster through genetic selection of Ultrabithorax protein-binding sites in yeast. Genetics 139, 349–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Meister, M., George!, P., Lemaitre, B., Kappler, C., Lagueux, M., Reichhart, J.-M. and Hoffmann, J.A. (1994) Immune Gene Expression in Drosophila. In Hoffmann, J.A., Janeway, Jr., C.A. and Natori, S. (eds.), Phylogenetic Perspectives in Immunity: The Insect Host Defense, R. G. Landes Co., Austin, TX, pp. 167–181.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    O’Reilly, D.R. and Miller, L.K. (1989) A baculovirus blocks insect molting by producing ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase. Science 245, 1110–1112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    O’Reilly, D.R., Brown, M.R. and Miller, L.K. (1992) Alteration of ecdysteroid metablism due to baculovirus infection of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda: host ecdysteroids are conjugated with galactose. Insect Biochem. Mole. Biol. 22, 313–320.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Osborne, K.A., Robichon, A., Burgess, E., Butland, S., Shaw, R.A., Coulthard, A., Pereira, H.S., Greenspan, R.J. and Sokolowski, M.B. (1997) Natural behavior polymorphism due to a cGMP-dependent protein kinase of Drosophila. Science 277, 834–836.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Park, E.J., Yin, C.M. and Burand, J.P. (1996) Baculovirus replication alters hormone-regulated host development. J. Gen. Virol. 77, 547–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pearson, A., Lux, A. and Krieger, M. (1995) Expression cloning of dSR-CI, a class C macrophage-specific scavenger receptor from Drosophila melanogaster. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 4056–4060.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rauseil, C., Llorca, J. and Real, M.D. (1997) Separation by FPLC chromatofocusing of UDPglucosyltransferases from three developmental stages of Drosophila melanogaster. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 34, 347–358.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Riegel, C.I., Lanner-Herrera, C. and Slavicek, J.M. (1994) Identification and characterization of the ecdysteroid UTP-glucosyltransferase gene of the Lymantria dispar multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus. J. Gen. Virol. 75, 829–838.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ritter, J.K., Chen, F., Sheen, Y.Y., Tran, H.M., Kimura, S., Yeatman, M.T. and Owens, I.S. (1992) A novel complex locus UGTI encodes human bilirubin, phenol, and other UDP-glucoronosyltransferase isozymes with identical carboxyl termini. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 3257–3261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rizki, M. T. M. (1957a) Tumor formation in relation to metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster. J. Morphology 100, 459–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rizki, M.T.M. (1957b) Alterations in the haemocyte population of Drosophila melanogaster. J. Morphology 100, 437–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rizki, T. M. (1978a) The circulatory system and associated cells and tissues. In Ashburner, M. and Wright, T.R.F. (eds.), Genetics and Biology of Drosophila. Academic Press, New York, Vol. 2B, pp. 397–452.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rizki, T. M. (1978b) Fat body. In Ashburner, M. and Wright, T.R.F. (eds.), Genetics and Biology of Drosophila. Academic Press, New York, Vol. 2B, pp. 561–601.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rizki, R.M. and Rizki, T.M. (1984) Selective destruction of a host blood cell type by a parasitoid wasp. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 6154–6158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rodrigues, V., Cheah, P.Y., Ray, K. and Chia, W. (1995) malvolio, the Drosophila homologue of mouse NRAMP-1 (Bcg), is expressed in macrophages and in the nervous system and is required for normal taste behaviour. EMBO J. 13, 3007–3020.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rodriguez, A., Zhou, Z., Tang, M. L., Mellor, S., Chen, J., Bellen, H. and Kimbrell, D.A. (1996) Identification of immune system and response genes, and novel mutations causing melanotic tumor formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 143, 929–940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rugendorff, A., Younossi-Hartenstein A. and Hartenstein V. (1993) Embryonic origin and differentiation of the Drosophila heart. Roux’s Arch. Dev. Biol. 203, 266–280.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F. and Maniatis, T. (1989). Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Shrestha, R. and Gateff, E. (1982) Ultrastructure and cytochemistry of the cell types in the larval hematopoetic organs and hemolymph of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev. Growth Differ. 24, 65–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sparrow, J.C. (1978) Melanotic tumors. In Ashburner, M. and Wright, T.R.F. (eds.), Genetics and Biology of Drosophila. Academic Press, New York, Vol. 2B, pp. 277–313.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tamkun, J.W., Kahn, R.A., Kissinger, M., Brizuela, B.J., Rulka, C., Scott, M.P. and Kennison, J.A. (1991) The arflike gene encodes an essential GTP-binding protein in Drosophila. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 3120–3124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tautz, D. and Pfeifle, C. (1989) A non-radioactive in situ hybridization method for the localization of specific mRNAs in Drosophila embryos reveals translational control of the segmentation gene hunchback. Chromosoma 98, 81–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tepass, U., Fessier, L., Aziz, A. and Hartenstein, V. (1994) Embryonic origin of hemocytes and their relationship to cell death in Dros. Development 120, 1829–1837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Watson, K. L., Justice, R.W. and Bryant, P.J. (1994) Drosophila in cancer research: the first fifty tumor supressor genes. J. Cell Science 18, 19–33.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wilson, D., Bellen, H.J., Pearson, R.K., O’Kane, C.J., Grossniklaus, U. and Gehring, W. (1989) Pelement-mediated enhancer detection: Isolation and characterization of developmentally regulated genes in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 3, 1301–1333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zhou, X, Nguyen, T. and Kimbrell, D. A. (1997) Identification and characterization of the Cecropin antibacterial protein gene locus in Drosophila virilis. J. Mol. Evol. 44, 272–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Z. Zhou
    • 1
  • A. Rodriguez
    • 1
  • C.-Y. Wu
    • 1
  • D. A. Kimbrell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology Rice University

Personalised recommendations