Antiproliferative Effects of Garlic-Derived and Other Allium Related Compounds

  • John T. Pinto
  • Sameer Lapsia
  • Amy Shah
  • Harsha Santiago
  • Grace Kim
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 492)

Abstract

An extensive and expanding information base that incorporates data from epidemiologic, animal, and laboratory investigations documents the relation between garlic consumption and decreased risk of developing cancer at various organ sites (1, 2, 3). Garlic and other allium-related plants contain alliin, an allylsulfinothiolated derivative of cysteine, that is transformed exogenously into a number of mono-, di-, and triallylsulfinyl analogues when the bulb is crushed, minced, or damaged (5). These bioactive compounds interact with a number of molecular targets whose functions range from control of cell cycle to expression of crucial antioxidant and detoxification enzymes (6, 7, 8). Modulation of each of these processes may underlie garlic’s putative anticancer potential.

Keywords

Folate Disulfide Nifedipine Saponin Diltiazem 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Key TJA, Silcocks PB, Davey GK, Appleby PN, Bishop DT. A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer. Brit J Cancer 1997; 76: 678–687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dorant E, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA, Hermus RJJ, Sturmans F. Garlic and its significance for the prevention of cancer in humans. A critical view. Br J Cancer 1993; 67: 424–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Milner JA. Garlic: Its anticarcinogenic and antitumorigenic properties. Nutr Rev 1996; 54: S82–S86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sumiyoshi H, Wargovich MJ. Garlic (Allium sativum): A review of its relationship to cancer. Asia Pacific J Pharmacol 1989; 4:133–140.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Block E. The chemistry of garlic and onions Sci. Amer 1985; 252: 114–119.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pinto JT, Rivlin RS. Garlic and Other Allium Vegetables in Cancer Prevention. In “Nutritional Oncology” David Heber, George L. Blackburn, VLW Go, eds. New York, NY: Academic Press, 1999.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Agarwal KC. Therapeutic actions of garlic constituents. Med Res Rev 1996; 16: 111–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yeh YY. Garlic phytochemicals in disease prevention and health promotion: An overview. New Drug Clin 1996; 45: 441–450.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Han J, Lawson L, Han G. A spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of allicin and total garlic thiosulfinates. Anal Biochem 1995; 225: 157–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Weinberg DS, Manier ML, Richardson MD, Haibach FG. Identification and quantification of anticarcinogens in garlic extract and licorice root extract powder. J High Resolution Chromatography 1992; 15: 641–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ide N, Lau BHS, Ryu K, Matsuura H, Itakura Y. Antioxidant effects of fructosyl arginine, a maillard reaction product in aged garlic extract. J Nutr Biochem 1999; 10: 372–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yu TH, Wu CM, Liou YC. Volatile compounds from garlic. J Agrie Food Chem 1989; 27: 725–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yamasaki T, Teel RW, Lau BHS. Effect of allixin, aphytoalexin produced by garlic, on mutagenesis, DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B 1. Cancer Lett 1991 59: 89–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Itakura Y, Ichikawa M, Mori Y, Okino R, Morita T How to distinguish garlic from the other allium vegetables? Recent Advances on the Nutritional Benefits Accompanying the Use of Garlic as a Supplement. Sponsored by The University of Pennsylvania and the National Cancer Institute. November 15–17, New Port Beach, CA, 1998.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wattenberg LW. Chemoprevention of cancer. Cancer Res 1985; 45: 1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sparnins VL, Barany G, Wattenberg LW. Effects of organosulfur compounds from garlic and onion on benzo[alpyrene-induced neoplasia and glutathione S-transferase activity in the mouse. Carcinogenesis 1988; 9:131–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sparnins VL, Mott AW, Barany G, Wattenberg LE. Effects of ally] methyl trisulfide on glutathione S-transferase activity and BP-induced neoplasia in the mouse. Nutr Cancer 1986; 8: 211–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hayes MA, Rushmore TH, Goldberg MT. Inhibition of hepatocarcinogenic responses to 1,2-dimethylhydrazine to diallyl sulfide, a component of garlic oil. Carcinogenesis 1987; 8:1155–1157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hatono S, Jimenez A, Wargovich MJ. Chemopreventive effect of S-allylcysteine and its relationship to the detoxification of enzyme glutathione S transferase. Carcinogenesis 1996; 17: 1041–1044.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dwivedi C, Rohlfs S, Jarvis D, Engineer FN. Chemoprevention of chemically induced skin tumor development by diallyl sulfide and diallyl disulfide. Pharmaceutical Res 1992; 9: 1668–1670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sigounas G, Hooker JL, Li W, Anagnostou A, Steiner M. S-allylmercaptocysteine inhibits cell proliferation and reduces the viability of erythroleukemia, breast, a.nd prostate cancer cell lines. Nutr Cancer 1997; 27: 186–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sumiyoshi H, Wargovich MJ. Chemoprevention of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer in mice by naturally occurring organosulfur compounds. Cancer Res 1990; 50: 5084–5087.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cheng JY, Meng CL, Tzeng CC, Lin JC. Optimal dose of garlic to inhibit dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer. WorldJ Surg 1995; 19: 621–625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wattenberg LW, Sparnins VL, Barany G. Inhibition of N-nitrosodiethylamine carcinogenesis in mice by naturally occurring organosulfur compounds and monoterpenes. Cancer Res 1989; 49:2689–2692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lin X-Y, Liu J-Z, Milner JA. Dietary garlic suppresses DNA adducts caused by N-nitroso compounds. Carcinogenesis 1994; 15: 349–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cavallito CJ, Buck JS, Suter CM. Allicin, the antibacterial principle of allium sativum.II. Determination of the chemical structure. J Am Chem Soc 1944; 66: 1952–1954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wills ED. Enzyme inhibition by allicin, the active principle of garlic. Biochem J 1956; 63: 514–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stoll A, Seebeck E. Chemical Investigations of alliin, the specific principle of garlic. Adv Enzymol 1951; 11: 377–400.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Freeman F, Kodera Y. Garlic chemistry: Stability of S-(2-propenyl) 2-propene-1sulfinothioate (allicin) in blood, solvents, and simulated physiological fluids. J Agric Food Chem 1995; 43: 2332–2338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Koch HP, Lawson LD, Reuter HD, Hahn G, Siegers C-P. The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium Sativum L. and Related Species. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1996. pp 59–65.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nakagawa S, Masamoto K, Sumiyoshi H, Kunihiro K, Fuwa T. Effect of raw garlic juice and aged garlic extract on growth of young rats and their organs after peroral administration. J Toxicol Sci 1980; 5: 91–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pinto JT, Qiao CH, Xing J, Rivlin RS, Protomastro ML, Weissler ML, Tao Y, Thaler H, Heston WDW. Effects of garlic thioallyl derivatives on growth, glutathione concentration, and polyamine formation of human prostate carcinoma cells in culture. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66: 398–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Weisberger AS, Pcnsky J. Tumor inhibition by a sulthydryl-blocking agent related to an active principle of garlic (Allium sativum). Cancer Res 1958; 18: 1301–1308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Meister A, Anderson ME. Glutathione. Annu Rev Biochem 1983; 52: 71 1–760.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pierson S. Garlic product organosulfur chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology: an overview for pharmacists. Pharm/alert Continuing Education 1994; 2: 1–9.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Harington JS. The sulthydryl group and carcinogenesis. Adv Cancer Res. 1967; 10:247–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Roussel MF. Key effectors of signal transduction and GI progression. Adv Cancer Res 1998; 74:1–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nishino H, Iwashima A, Itakura Y, Matsuura H, Fuwa, T. Antitumor-promoting activity of garlic extracts. Oncology 1989; 46: 277–280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sundaram SG, Milner JA. Diallyl disulfide suppresses the growth of human colon tumor cell xenografts in athymic nude mice. J Nutr 1996; 126: 1355–1361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Takeyama H, Hoon DSB, Saxton RE, Morton DL, Irie RF. Growth inhibition and modulation of cell markers of melanoma by S-allyl cysteine. Oncology 1993; 50: 63–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Welch C, Wuarin L, Sidell N. Antiproliferative effect of the garlic compound S-allyl cysteine on human neuroblastoma cells in vitro. Cancer Lett 1992; 63: 211–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lee ES, Steiner M, Lin R. Thioallyl compounds: Potent inhibitors of cell proliferation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1994; 1221: 73–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Janne J, Poso H, Raina A. Polyamines in rapid growth and cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta 1978; 473:241–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Heby O. Role of polyamines in control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Differentiation 1981; 19:1–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pohjanpelto P. Putrescine transport is greatly increased in human fibroblasts initiated to proliferate. J Cell Biol 1976; 68: 512–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    O’Brien TG. The induction of omithine decarboxylase as an early, possibly obligatory, event in mouse skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 1976; 36: 2644–2653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    DiPasquale A, White D, McGuire, JR. Epidermal growth factor stimulates putrescine transport and ornithine dccarboxylase activity in cultivated human fibroblasts. Exp Cell Res 1978; 116:317–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pegg AE. Recent advances in the biochemistry of polyamines in eukaryotes. Biochem J 1986; 234:249–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Womble JR, Russell DH. Catecholamine-stimulated B2 receptors coupled to omithine decarboxylase induction and to cellular hypertrophy and proliferation. Adv Polyamine Res 1983; 4: 549–562.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Russell DH. Omithine decarboxylase as a biological and pharmacological tool. Pharmacology 1980; 20:117–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Perchellet JP, Perchellet EM, Abney NL, Zimstein JA, Belman S. Effects of garlic and onion oils on glutathione peroxidase activity, the ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione and ornithine decarboxylase induction in isolated mouse epidermal cells treated with tumor promoters. Cancer Biochem Biophys 1986; 8: 299–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hu PJ, Wargovich MJ. Effect of diallyl sulfide on MNNG-induced nuclear aberrations and omithine decarboxylase activity in the glandular stomach mucosa of the Wistar rat. Cancer Lett 1989; 47:153–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Takada N, Kitano M, Chen T, Yano Y, Otani S, Fukushima S Enhancing effects of organosulfur compounds from garlic and onions on hepatocarcinogenesis in rats: association with increased cell proliferation and elevated ornithine decarboxylase activity. Jpn J Cancer Res 1994; 85:1067–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Baer AR, Wargovich MJ. Role of ornithine decarboxylase in diallyl sulfide inhibition of colonic radiation injury in the mouse. Cancer Res 1989; 49:5073–5076.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gudi VA, Singh SV. Effect of diallyl sulfide, a naturally occurring anti-carcinogen, on glutathione-dependent detoxification enzymes of female CD-1 mouse tissues. Biochem Pharmac 1991; 42:1261–1265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Scharfenberg K, Ryll T, Wagner R, Wagner KG. Injuries to cultivated BJA-B cells by ajoene, a garlic-derived natural compound: cell viability, glutathione metabolism, and pools of acidic amino acids. J Cell Physiol 1994; 158:55–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Coleman CS, Stanley BA, Pegg AE. Effect of mutations at active site residues on the activity of omithine decarboxylase and its inhibition by active site-directed irreversible inhibitors. J Biol Chem 1993; 268: 24572–24579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    TadoliniB. Polyamine inhibition of lipoperoxidation. Biochem J 1988; 249: 33–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sigounas G, Hooker JL, Li W, Anagnostou A, Steiner M. S-Allylmercaptocysteine, a stable thioallyl compound, induces apoptosis in erythroleukemia cell lines. Nutr Cancer 1997; 28:153–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Dirsch VM, Gerbes AL, Vollmar AM. Ajoene, a compound of garlic, induces apoptosis in human promyeloleukemic cells, accompanied by generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of nuclear factor KB. Molec Pharmacol 1998; 53: 402–407.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Knowles LM, Milner JA. Garlic constituents alter cell cycle progression and proliferation. FASEBJ 1997; 11:A422.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sundaram SG, Milner JA. Diallyl disulfide inhibits the proliferation of human tumor cells in culture. Biochim Biophys Acta 1996; 1315: 15–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hockenberry DM, Oltvai AN, Yin XN, Milliman CL, Korsmeyer SJ. Bel-2 functions in an antioxidant pathway to prevent apoptosis. Cell 1993; 75: 241–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Meyer M, Schreck R, Baeuerle PA. H202and antioxidants have opposite effects on activation of NF-KB and AP-1 in intact cells: AP-1 as secondary antioxidant responsive factor. EMBO J 1993; 12:2005–2015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Powis G GashaskaJR Baker A. “Redox signaling and the control of cell growth and death.” In Antioxidants in disease mechanisms and therapy. Helmut Sies, Volume Editor, Advances in Pharmacology, New York, NY: Academic Press 1997; 38:329–359.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sun Y, Oberley LW. Redox regulation of transcriptional activators. Free Radical Biol Med 1996 21:335–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sen CK, Packer L. Antioxidant and redox regulation of gene transcription. FASEB J 1996; 10: 709–720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Siebenlist U, Franzoso G, Brown K. Structure, regulation and function of NFKB. Annu Rev Cell Biol 1994; 10: 405–455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Schenk H, Klein M, Erdbrugger W, Droge W, Schulze-Osthoff K. Distinct effects of thioredoxin and antioxidants on the activation of transcription factors NF-kappa B and AP-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci. USA. 1994; 91:1672–1676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Geng Z, Rong Y, Lau BHS. S allyl cysteine inhibits activation of nuclear factor kappa B in human T cells. Free Radical Biology Med 1997; 23: 345–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ide N, Lau BHS. Garlic compounds minimize intracellular oxidative stress and inhibit NFKB action. Abstract presented at the Recent Advances on the Nutritional Benefits Accompanying the Use of Garlic as a Supplement. Sponsored by The University of Pennsylvania and the National Cancer Institute. November 15–17. Newport Beach, CA. 1998.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Grimm S, Bauer, MKA, Baeuerle PA, Schulze-Osthoff K. Bc1–2 down regulates the activity of transcription factor NF-kappa B induced upon apoptosis. J Cell Biol 1996; 134: 13–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Matthews JR, Wakasugi N, Virelizier JL, Yodoi J, Hay RT. Thioredoxin regulates the DNA binding activity of NF-kappa B by reduction of a disulphide bond involving cysteine-62. Nucleic Acids Res 1992; 20: 3821–3830.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Campbell SL, Khosravi-Far R, Rossman KL, Clark GJ, Der CJ. Increasing complexity of Ras signaling. Oncogene 1998; 17:1395–1413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Singh SV, Mohan RR, Agarwal R, Benson PJ, Hu X, Rudy MA, Xia H, Katoh A, Srivastava SD, Mukhtar H, Gupta V, Zaren HA. Novel anti-carcinogenic activity of an organosulfide from garlic: Inhibition of H-ras oncogene transformed tumor growth in vivo by diallyl disulfide is associated with inhibition of p21H-`’ processing. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996; 225: 660–665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Goldstein JL, Brown MS. Regulation of the mevalonate pathway. Nature 1990; 343:425–430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Schaber MD, O’Hara MB, Garsky VM, Mosser SD, Bergstrom JD, Moores SL, Marshall MS, Friedman PA, Dixon RAF, Gibbs JB. Polyisoprenylation of ras in vitro by a farnesyl-protein transferase. J Biol Chem 1990; 265: 14,701–14,704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Fukada Y, Takao T, Ohguro H, Yoshizawa T, Akino T, Shimonishi Y. Famesylated y-subunit of photoreceptor G protein indispensable for GTP-binding. Nature 1990; 346: 658–660.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Cappel RE, Gilbert HF. Thiol/disulfide exchange between 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutarylCoA reductase and glutathione. A thermodynamically facile dithiol oxidation. J Biol Chem 1988; 263:12,204–12,212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gilbert HF, Stewart MD. Inactivation of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase from yeast by coenzyme A disulfide. J Biol Chem 1981; 256:1782–1785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lee S, Park S, Oh JW, Yang C. Natural inhibitors for protein prenyltransferase. Planta Med 1998; 64:303–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Stabel S, Parker PJ. Protein kinase C Pharmacol Ther 1991; 51: 71–95.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kikuchi K, Naito K, Noguchi J, Shimada A, Kaneko H, Yamashita M, Tojo H, Toyoda Y. Inactivation of p34cdc2 kinase by the accumulation of its phosphorylated forms in porcine oocytes matured and aged in vitro. Zygote 1999; 7:173–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gopalakrishna R, Gundimeda U, Chen ZH. Cancer-preventive selenocompounds induce a specific redox modification of cysteine-rich regions in Ca(2+)-dependent isoenzymes of protein kinase C. Arch Biochem Biophys 1997; 348:25–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Apitz-Castro R, Jain MK, Bartoli F, Ledezma E, Ruiz MC, Salas R Evidence for direct coupling of primary agonist-receptor interaction to the exposure of functional lib-IIIa complexes in human blood platelets. Results from studies with the antiplatelet compound ajoene. Biochim Biophys Acta 1991; 1094:269–280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Veldhuis JD, Hammond JM. Role of calcium in the modulation of omithine decarboxylase activity in isolated pig granulosa cells in vitro. Biochem J 1981; 196:795–801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Akerman KEO. Ca+z-Transport and cell activation. Med Biol 1982; 60: 168–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gilbert HF. Molecular and cellular aspects of thiol-disulfide exchange. Adv Enzymology 1990; 63: 169–172.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Rasmussen H. The calcium messenger system. N Eng1 J Med 1986; 314: 1164–1170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sakamoto K, Lawson, LD, Milner JA. Allyl sulfides from garlic suppress the in vitro proliferation of human A549 lung tumor cells Nutr Cancer 1997; 29:152–156.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Siegel G, Walter A, Schnalke F, Schmidt A, Buddecke E, Loirand G, Stock G. Potassium channel activation, hyperpolarization, and vascular relaxation. Z Kardiol 1991; 80 Suppl 7:9–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Martin N, Bardisa L, Pantoja C, Barra E, Demetrio C, Valenzuela J, Barrios M, Sepulveda MJ. Involvement of calcium in the cardiac depressant actions of a garlic dialysate. J Ethnopharmacol 1997; 55:113–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Das I, Khan NS, Sooranna SR. Potent activation of nitric oxide synthase by garlic: a basis for its therapeutic applications. Curr Med Res Opin 1995; 13: 257–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Moncada S, Higgs A. The L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 2002–2112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Dawson VL, Dawson TM, Bartley DA, Uhl GR, Snyder SH. Mechanisms of nitric oxide-mediated neurotoxicity in primary brain cultures. J Neurosci 1993; 13: 2651–2661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Santiago H, Pinto JT, unpublished observation, 1999.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Bordia A, Bansal HC, Arora SK, Singh SV. Effect of essential oils of garlic and onion on alimentary hyperlipemia. Atherosclerosis 1975; 21: 15–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Chang MLW, Johnson, MA. Effect of garlic on carbohydrate metabolism and lipid synthesis in rats. J Nutr 1980; 1 10: 931–936.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Adamu I, Joseph PK, Augusti KT. Hypolipidemic action of onion and garlic unsaturated oils in sucrose fed rats over a two-month period. Experientia 1982; 38: 899–901.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sodimu O, Joseph PK, Augusti KT. Certain biochemical effects of garlic oil on rats maintained on high fat-high cholesterol diet. Experientia 1984; 40: 78–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Brady JF, Li D, Ishizaki H, Yang CS. Effect of diallyl sulfide on rat liver microsomal nitrosamine metabolism and other monooxygenase activities. Cancer Res 1988; 48, 5937–5940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Reicks MM, CrankshawDL . Modulation of rat hepatic cytochrome P450 activity by garlic organosulfur compounds. Nutr Cancer 1996; 25: 241–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wargovich MJ, Woods C, Eng VWS, Stephens LC, Gray K. Chemoprevention of Nnitrosomethylbenzylamine-induced esophageal cancer in rats by naturally occurring thioether, diallyl sulfide. Cancer Res 1988; 48: 6872–6875.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Brady JF, Ishizaki H, Fukuto JM, Lin MC, Fadel A, Gapac JM, Yang CS. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 IIE1 by diallyl sulfide and its metabolites. Chem Res Toxicol 1991; 4: 642–647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Pan J, Hong J-Y, Ma B-L, Ning SM, Paranawithana SR, Yang CS. Transcriptional activation of P-450 2B1/2 genes in rat liver by diallyl sulfone, a compound derived from garlic. Arch Biochem Biophys 1993; 302:337–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Wilding G. The importance of steroid hormones in prostate cancer. Cancer Sury 1992; 14: 113–130.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Schneider J, Kinne D, Fracchia A. Abnormal oxidative metabolism of estradiol in women with breast cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1982; 79: 3047–3051.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Guengerich FP. Human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Life Sci. 1992; 50: 1471–1478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Nelson DR, Koymans L, Kamataki T, Stegeman JJ, Feyereisen R, Waxman DJ, Waterman MR, Gotoh O, Coon MJ, Estabrook RW, Gunsalus IC, Nebert DW. P450 superfamily: Update on new sequences, gene mapping, accession numbers and nomenclature. Pharmacogenetics 1996; 6: 1–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Musey PI, Collins DC, Bradlow HL, Gould KG, Preedy JR. Effect of diet on oxidation of 17 8-estradiol in vivo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987; 65: 792–795.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Relling MV, Lin JS, Ayers GD, Evans WE. Racial and gender differences in Nacetyltransferase, xanthine oxidase, and CYPIA2 activities. Clin Pharmacol Titer 1992; 52: 643–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Sepkovic DW, Qiao C, Pinto J, Bradlow HL. Phase II metabolism of various estrogens after treatment with aged garlic extract. Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research, April 27–30; Washington, D.C., 1996.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Pinto JT, Qiao CH, Xing J, Suffoletto BP, Rivlin RS, Heston, WDW. Garlic constituents modify expression of biomarkers for human prostatic carcinoma cells. FASEBJ 1997; 11: 439A.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Nebert DW. Elevated estrogen 16a-hydroxylase activity: Is this a genotoxic or nongenotoxic biomarker in human breast cancer risk? [editorial; comment] J Natl CancerInst 1993; 85:1888–1891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Swaneck GE, Fishman J. Covalent binding of the endogenous estrogen 16 alphahydroxyestrone to estradiol receptor in human breast cancer cells: Characterization and intranuclear localization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988; 85: 7831–7835.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Li G, Qiao CH, Lin RI, Pinto JT, OsborneMP Tiwari RK. Antiproliferative effects of garlic constituents on cultured human breast cancer cells. Oncol. Rep 1995; 2: 787–791.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Pinto J, Qiao C, Xing J, Suffoletto B, Rivlin RS, and Heston W. Garlic constituents modify expression of biomarkers for human prostatic carcinoma cells. FASEB J 1997; 11:439A.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Pinto JT, Suffoletto BP, Berzin, TM, Qiao CH, Lin S, Tong WP, May F, Mukherjee B, Heston WDW. Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen: A novel folate hydrolase in human prostatic carcinoma cells. Clin Cancer Res 1996; 2:1445–1451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Wright GL Jr, Grob BM, Haley C, Grossman K, Newhall K, Petrylak H, Troyer J, Konchuba A, Schellhammer PF, Moriarity R. Upregulation of prostate specific membrane antigen after androgen deprivation therapy. Urology 1996; 48: 326–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • John T. Pinto
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Sameer Lapsia
    • 1
  • Amy Shah
    • 1
  • Harsha Santiago
    • 1
  • Grace Kim
    • 1
  1. 1.Nutrition Research LaboratoryUSA
  2. 2.The Clinical Nutrition Research UnitMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterUSA
  3. 3.Weill Medical College of Cornell UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations