Dietary Intervention Strategies: Validity, Execution and Interpretation of Outcomes

  • Phyllis E. Bowen
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 492)


Experimental research designs that use single chemical entities have been the cornerstone of careful scientific research. Therefore the use of total diet patterns, or whole foods, which contain hundreds of chemical components, would appear to lack sufficient control to yield productive information. However, cancer prevention and control may be an area where well-designed diet intervention strategies may be an efficient research approach. This chapter will present arguments for the necessity of diet and whole food supplementation research studies and descriptions of strategies for their implementation. Additionally, the components of effective diet intervention studies will be discussed. Whether the research involves cell media, animal diets or human diets, the whole diet should be considered an important factor in any research design where the ultimate aim is cancer prevention and control.


Cancer Prevention Flaxseed Diet Control Feeding Study Polyp Prevention Trial Nuclear Aberration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General’s Report on Nutrition and Health, Public Health Service, DHHS (PHS) Publication No. 88–50210, Washington, DC, 1988, p. 180.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Le Marchand L, Hankin JH, Bach F, Kolonel LN, Wilkens, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, Bowen PE, Beecher GR, Laudon F, Baque P, Daniel R, Seruvatu L, Henderson B. An ecological study of diet and lung cancer in the South Pacific. Int J Cancer 1995; 63:18–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    McMichael AJ, McCall MG, Hartshorne JM, Woodings TL. Patterns of gastrointestinal cancer in European migrants to Australia: the role of dietary change. Int J Cancer 1980; 25:431–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kune S, Kune GA, Watson LF. Case-control study of dietary etiological factors: the Melbourne colorectal cancer study. Nutr Cancer 1987; 9:21–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Block G, Patterson B, Subar A. Fruit, vegetables, and cancer prevention: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Nutr Cancer 1992; 18:1–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ziegler RG, Mason Ti, Stemhagen A, Hoover R, Schoenberg JB, Gridley G, Virgo PW, Fraumeni JG. Carotenoid intake, vegetables, and the risk of lung cancer among white men in New Jersey. Am J Epidemiol 1986; 123:1080–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Staack R, Kingston S, Wallig MA, Jeffery EH. A comparison of the individual and collective effects of four glucosinolate breakdown products from Brussel Sprouts on induction of detoxification enzymes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1998; 149:17–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Serraino M, Thompson LU. The effect of flaxseed supplementation on early risk markers for mammary carcinogenesis. Cancer Lettr 1991; 60:135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Thompson LU, Rickard SE, Orcheson LJ, Seidle MM. Flaxseed and its lignan and oil components reduce mammary tumor growth at a late stage of carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 1996; 17:1373–1376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mayne ST, Cartmel B, Silva F, Kim CS, Fallon BG, Briskin K, Zheng T, Baum M, Shor-Posner G, Goodwin WJ. Effect of supplemental beta-carotene on plasma concentrations of carotenoids, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 68:642–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Albanes D, Virtamo J, Taylor PR, Rautalahti M, Pietinen P, Heinonen OP. Effects of supplemental 13-carotene, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on serum carotenoids in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66:366–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wahlqvist M, Wattanapenpaiboon N, Macrae FA, Lambert JR, MacLennan R, Hsu-Hage BN. Changes in serum carotenoids in subjects with colorectal adenomas after 24 mo of i3-carotene supplementation. Australian Polyp Prevention Investigators. Am J Clin Nutr 1994; 60:936–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dennis BH, Ershow AG, Obarzanek E, Clevidence BA, eds. Well-Controlled Diet Studies in Humans. USA, The American Dietetic Association, 1999.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Halliwell B. Establishing the significance and optimal intake of dietary antioxidants: the biomarker concept. Nutr Rev 1999; 57:104–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chen L, Bowen PE, Berzy D, Aryee F, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, Riley RE. Diet modification affects DNA oxidative damage in healthy humans. Free Rad Biol Med 1999; 26:695–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lee CK, Klopp RG, Weindruch R, Prolla TA. Gene expression profile of aging and its retardation by caloric restriction. Science 1999; 285:1390–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hussain SP, Harris CC. Molecular epidemiology of human cancer: contribution of mutation spectra studies of tumor suppressor genes. Cancer Res 1998; 58:4023–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Harsha, DW, Lin PH, Obarzanek E, Karanja NM, Moore Ti, Caballero B, for the DASH Collaborative Research Group. Dietary approaches to stop hypertension: a summary of study results. J Am Diet Assoc 1999; 99(suppl):S35–S39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dennis BH, Stewart P, Wang C-H, Champagne C, Windhauser M, Ershow A, Karmally W, Phillips K, Stewart K, Heel NV, Farhat-Wood A, Kris-Etherton PM. Diet design for a multicenter controlled feeding trial, the DELTA program. J Am Diet Assoc 1998; 98:766–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schatzkin A, Lanza E, Freedman LS, Tangrea J, Cooper MR, Marshall JR, Murphy PA, Selby JV, Shike M, Schade RR, Burt RW, Kikendall JW, Cahill J. The polyp prevention trial I: rationale, design, recruitment, and baseline participant characteristics. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prey 1996; 5:375–83.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lanza E, Schatzkin A, Ballard-Barbash R, Corle D, Clifford C, Paskett E, Hayes D, Bote E, Caan B, Shike M, Weissfeld J, Slattery M, Mateski D, Daston C. The polyp prevention trial II: dietary intervention program and participant baseline dietary characteristics. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prey 1996; 5:385–92; Erratum in Cancer Epidemiol Biormarkers Prey 1996; 5:584.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Spring B, Pingitore R, Kessler K. Strategies to minimize weight gain after smoking cessation: psychological and pharmacological intervention with specific reference to dexfenfluramine. Int J Obes Metab Disord 1992; 16(Suppl 3): S19–23.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Obarzanek E, Hunsberger SA, Van Horn L, Hartmuller VV, Barton BA, Stevens VJ, Kwiterovich PO, Franklin FA, Kimm SY, Lasser NL, Simons-Morton DG, Lauer RM. Safety of fat-reduced diet: the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC). Pediatrics 1997; 100:51–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    . Knopp RH, Superko HR, Davidson M, Insull W, Dujovne CA, Kwiterovich PO, Zavoral JH, Graham K, O’Conner RR, Edelman DA. Long-term blood cholesterol-lowering effects of a dietary fiber supplement. Am J Prey Med 1999; 17:18-23. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chisholm A, Mann J, Skeaff M, Frampton C, Sutherland W, Duncan A, Tiszavari S. A diet rich in walnuts favorably influences plasma fatty acid profile in moderately hyperlipidaemic subjects. Euro J Clin Nutr 1998; 52:12–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Spiller GA, Jenkins AF, Bosello O, Gates JE, Cragen LN, Bruce B. Nuts and plasma lipids: an almond-based diet lowers LDL-C while preserving HDL-C. J Am Coll Nutr 1998; 17:285–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Phyllis E. Bowen
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoIL

Personalised recommendations