“Died of a Theory”

  • Melvyn L. Fein
Part of the Clinical Sociology book series (CSRP)

Abstract

It was the 1970s and I was completing my doctoral studies at the City University of New York. Being without private funds, like many other poverty stricken graduate students, I took a job to meet my expenses. In my case, this entailed driving a taxi. The garage that employed me was located in Brooklyn, but as we cabbies understood, the majority of the work lay on the other side of the East River. The first thing we did each morning therefore was to cross the Manhattan Bridge. Once beyond this span, we would cruise up and down the island, transporting passengers on short, lucrative hauls along well-worn tracks. To recross the river was an act of folly that placed one in an area with fewer fares and where one was in jeopardy of getting lost.

Keywords

Income Assure Expense Arena Defend 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

“Died of a Theory”

  1. 1.
    See: Ballard, M.B. (1997)The Long Shadow: Jefferson Davis and the Final Days of the Confederacy.Athens: University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    West, C. (1993)Race Matters.Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    D’Souza, D. (1995)The End of Racism: Principles for a Multiracial Society.New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brinkerhoff, D.B., White, L.K., and Riedmann, A.C. (1997)Sociology4th Edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Press.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Appelbaum, R.P. and Chambliss, W.J. (1997)Sociology2nd Edition. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fong, T.P. (1998)The Contemporary Asian American Experience: Beyond the Model Minority.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Farley, J.E. (1995)Majority Minority Relations Third Edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Allport, G. (1954)The Nature of Prejudice.Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marger, M.N. (1997)Race and Ethnic Relations: ‘American and Global Perspectives:4th Edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shibutani, T. and Kwan, K. (1965)Ethnic Stratification.New York: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    For other texts that come to similar conclusions see: Schaefer, RT. (1996)Racial and Ethnic Groups6th Edition. New York: HarperCollins. Kitano, H.H. (1997)Race Relations5th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Rose, P.I. (1997)They and We: Racial and Ethnic Relations in the United States,5th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mihesuah, D.A. (1996)American Indians: Stereotypes and Realities.Atlanta, GA: Clarity Press.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza would disagree. He presents genetic evidence to the contrary. See: Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. and Cavalli-Sforza, F. (1995)The Great Human Diasporas.Reading, MA: Perseus Books.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    CalledInnovative Techniques for Teaching Sociological Conceptsit is regularly updated by the ASA.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Leo, J. (1994)Two Steps Ahead of the Thought Police.New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Park, R. (1950)Race and Culture.Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aguirre, A., Jr., and Turner, J.H. (1998)American Ethnicity: The Dynamics and Consequences of Discrimination.2nd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    An anthropologist colleague, Wayne Van Home, tells me that he gets similar results when he inquires into the stereotypes of Southerners versus Northerners. Van Home, W. (1998)Damn Yankees and Rednecks: Cultural Values Communication Styles and Stereotypes of Northerners and Southerners. (unpublished paper)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    D’Souza, D. (1995)The End of Racism: Principles for a Multiracial Society.New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Oliver, W. (1994)The Violent Social World of Black Men.New York: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, O. (1981)Archives of Recorded Sound of Rodgers and Hammerstein.Boston: G.R. Hall.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wrong, D. (1961) The oversocialized conception of man in modern sociology.American Sociological ReviewVol.26, No.2.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    West, T.G. (1997)Vindicating the Founders: Race Sex Class and Justice in the Origins of America. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Banaji, M.R. and Greenwald, A.G. (1994) Implicit stereotyping and prejudice. In: Zanna, M.P. and Olsen, J.M. (Eds.)The Psychology of Prejudice: The Ontario Symposium.Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; Brewer, M.B. (1988) A dual process model of impression formation. In: Wyler, R.S., Jr., and Srull, T.K. (Eds.),Advances in Social Cognition, Vol.1. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; Devine, P.G. (1989) Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,56, 5–18; Paul, Anne Murphy (1998) Where bias begins: The truth about stereotypes.Psychology Today,52–55, 82, May, June.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schutz, A. (1970)On Phenomenology and Social Relations.Chicago: University of Chicago Press; Smith, T.A. and O’Connell, L. (1997)Black Anxiety,White Guilt,and the Politics of Status Frustration.Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Parks, E.E. (1997)White Racial Identity Attitudes and Stereotypes: An Empirical Investigation.(unpublished dissertation) New York: Columbia University.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mannheim, K. (1936)Ideology and Utopia.New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gouldner, A.W. (1970)The Coming Crisis of Western Sociology.New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Piattelli-Palmarini, M. (1994)Inevitable Illusions: How Mistakes of Reason Rule Our Minds.New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sutherland, S. (1992)Irrationality.: Why We Don’t Think Straight!New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Parks, E.E. (1997) op. cit.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    de Tocqueville, A. (1966)Democracy in America.Trans. by George Lawrence. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hirschfeld, L.A. (1996)Race in the Making: Cognition Culture and the Child’s Construction of Human Kinds. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hamilton, D.L., Stroessner, S.J. and Driscoll, D.M. (1994) Social cognition and the study of Stereotyping. In: Devine, P.G., Hamilton. D.L.. and Ostrom, T.M. (Eds.)Social Cognition: Impact on Social Psychology.San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    See Elliott’s characterizations of Southerners and Baptists.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Toennies, F. (1966) [1887]Community and Society.New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Anderson, E. (1990)Streetwise: Race Class and Change in an Urban Community. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Goffinan, E. (1959)The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life.Garden City, NY: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pettigrew, T.F. (1979) The ultimate attribution error: Extending Allport’s cognitive analysis of prejudice.Personality and Social Psychology BulletinVol.5, pp.461–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    West, C. (1993) op. cit.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Illustrations of profiling can be found in: Egger, S.A. (1998)Killers Among Us: An Examination of Serial Murders and Their Investigation.Springfield: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Steele, C.M., Spencer, S.J., and Lynch, M. (1993) Self-image, resilience and dissonance: The role of affirmational resources.Journal of Personality and Social PsychologyVol.66: pp.885–896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Steele, C.M. (1999) Thin ice: ‘stereotype threat’ and black college students.The Atlantic MonthlyAugust.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    For the importance of salience see: Sutherland, S. (1992)Irrationality: Why We Don’t Think Straight!New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jones, J.H. (1981)Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment.New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    An explanation of “luminosity blindness” can be found in: Fein, M. (1999)Idealism: When Good Intentions Go Bad.New York: Plenum PublishingGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Parks, E.E. (1997) op. cit.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hamilton, D.L., Stroessner, S.J., and Driscoll, D.M. (1994) Social cognition and the study of stereotyping. In: Devine, P.G., Hamilton, D.L., and Ostrom, T.M. (Eds.)Social Cognition: Impact on Social Psychology.San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Devine, P.G. (1989) Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components.Journal of Personality and Social PsychologyVol.56, pp.5–18. Helms, J.E. and Piper, R.E. (1994) Implications of racial identity theory for vocational psychology.Journal of Vocational BehaviorVol.44, pp.124–138.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    A lively review of these developments can be found in: Entine, J. (2000)Taboo: Why Black Athletes Dominate Sports and Why We Are Afraid to Talk About It.New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Willes, quoted in John LeoU.S. News & World ReportJune 29, 1998, p.21.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    A discussion of “individuating” is found in: Fiske, S.T. and Von Hendy, H.M. (1992) Personality feedback and situational norms can control stereotyping processes.Journal of Personality and Social PsycholoVol.62, pp.577–596.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    See: Powell, C. with Persico, J.E. (1995) My American Journey.New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    See: Will, G.F. (1997) “Tale of Two Countries.”NewsweekJan. 10. wherein he cites the work of a young inner-city teacher, Mark Gerson (1997), as evidence of what can be done. See also: Gerson, M. (1997)In the Classroom: Dispatches from an Inner-City School that Works. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melvyn L. Fein
    • 1
  1. 1.Kennesaw State UniversityKennesaw

Personalised recommendations