Much of the discussion of stereological measurement in other chapters has emphasized the importance of isotropic, uniform and random sampling of the structure. The techniques by which isotropic sampling can be accomplished using vertical sections and cycloids, for example, can be applied even to materials that are not themselves isotropic. In fact, there are very few real samples for which isotropy or uniformity can be assumed. Biological specimens usually have complex directional relationships between local structure and the organism, geological strata preserve orientation information even when tilted, folded or faulted, plants know which way gravity points and where the sun shines, and materials bear the marks of their solidification and processing history, and even (except for a few precious shuttlegrown crystals) gravity.
KeywordsDust Anisotropy Welding Paral Carburization
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