Advertisement

Science Lies Its Way to the Truth ... Really

  • Meredith J. West
  • Andrew P. King
Chapter
Part of the Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology book series (HBNE, volume 13)

Abstract

In science today, the study of behavior seems to be something someone does to get to somewhere else. Behavior affords a gateway to physiology, neuroscience, and genetics. The quality of such integrative work thus begins and ends with the quality of knowledge about behavior. How do we assay behavioral quality and its integrative potential? We ask this question because we believe many beliefs about the nature of behavior are wrong, albeit wrong in a right way, a scientific way. In this chapter, we illustrate some of the issues in the study of behavior to be considered before its transport into new domains We call for renewed emphasis on the tasks actually confronting organisms as they develop and learn and on the social context in which behavior typically occurs, a context too often excised and ignored in current work. Without a focus on task and context, we cannot connect knowledge about biology to knowledge about behavior. Without such a focus, we cannot prevent a cascade of changes in the meaning, relevance, and utility of behavioral knowledge as it is subjected to the process of integration.

Keywords

Social Learning Song Type Repertoire Size Male Song Bird Song 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alberts, J. R. (1978). Huddling by rat pups: Group behavioral mechanisms of temperature regulation and energy conservation. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 92, 231–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Azar, B. (2000). Wanted: behavioral researchers with a penchant for genetics. Monitor on Psychology, 31, 36–39Google Scholar
  3. Bar. (1997). Dynamics of complex systems Reading, MA: Addison-WesleyGoogle Scholar
  4. Ball, G. F., & Hulse, S, H. (1998). Birdsong. American Psychologist, 33, 37–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bolyard, K. J., Sc Rowland, W. J. (1996). Context-dependent response to red coloration in stickleback. Animal Behaviour, 52, 923–927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bottjer, S. W., & Arnold, A. P. (1986). The ontogeny of vocal learning in songbirds. In E. M. Blass (Ed.), Handbook of behavioral neurobiology, Volume 8, Developmental psychobiology and developmental neurobiology (pp. 129–161). New York: Plenum PressGoogle Scholar
  7. Bottjer, S. W., Halsema, K. A., Brown, S. A., & Miesner, E. A. (1989). Axonal connections of a forebrain nucleus involved with vocal learning in zebra finches. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 279, 312–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Collins, F. (June 27, 2000). In N. Angier (Au.), A pearl and a hodgepodge: human DNA. The New York Times, p. 1Google Scholar
  9. Drickamer, L. C., Vessey, S. H., & Meikle, D. (1996). Animal Behavior Dubuque, IA: BrownGoogle Scholar
  10. Eastzer, D. H., King, A. P., & West, M. J. (1985). Patterns of courtship between cowbird subspecies: Evidence for positive assortment. Animal Behaviour, 33, 30–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Freeberg, T. M. (1996). Assortative mating in captive cowbirds is predicted by social experience. Animal Behaviour, 52, 1129–1142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Freeberg, T. M. (1997) Cultural transmission of behaviors facilitatingassortative courtship and mating in cowbirds (Molothrus ater) Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IndianaGoogle Scholar
  13. Freeberg, T. M., King, A. P., & West, M.J. (1995). Social malleability in cowbirds (Molothrus ater artemisiae): Species and mate recognition in the first 2 years of Fife. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 109, 357–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Friedmann, H. (1929). The Cowbirds: A study in the biology of social parasitism Springfield, IL: Thomas. Galef, B. G. (1982). Studies of social learning in Norway rats: A brief review. Developmental Psychobiology, 15, 279–296Google Scholar
  15. Galet, B. G. (1996). Social enhancement of food preferences in Norway rats: A brief review. In C. M. Heyes & B. G. Galef (Eds.), Social learning in animals: The roots of culture (pp. 49–64). San Diego, CA: Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  16. Gibson, E. J. (1969). Principles of perceptual learning and development New York: Appleton-Century-CroftsGoogle Scholar
  17. Gibson, J. J. (1966). The senses considered as perceptual systems Boston: Houghton-MifflinGoogle Scholar
  18. Giraldeau, L.-A., Caraco, T., & Valone, T. J. (1994). Social foraging: individual learning and cultural transmission of innovations. Behavioral Ecology, 5, 35–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gopnik, M., & Goad, H. (1997). What underlies inflectional error patterns in genetic dysphasia? Journal of Neurolinguistics, 9,109–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gottlieb, G. (1971). Development of species identification in birds Chicago: University of Chicago PressGoogle Scholar
  21. Gottlieb, G. (1993). Social induction of malleability in ducklings: Sensory basis and psychological mechanism. Animal Behaviour, 45707–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gould, S. J. (1996). Full house New York: Three Rivers PressGoogle Scholar
  23. Gould, S. J., & Lewontin, R. C. (1979). The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: A critique of the adaptationist programme. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 205, 581–598Google Scholar
  24. Griffiths, P. E., & Neumann-Held, E. M. (1999). The many faces of genes. BioScience,49, 656–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hamilton, K. S., King, A. P., Sengelaub, D. R., & West, M.J. (1997). A brain of her own: A neural correlate of song assessment in a female songbird. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 68, 325–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hamilton, K. S., King, A. P., Sengelaub, D. R., & West, M.J. (1998). Visual and song nuclei correlate with courtship skills in brown-headed cowbirds. Animal Behaviour, 56, 973–982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Harlow, H. F. (1965). Mice, monkeys, men, and motives. In H. Fowler (Eds.), Curiosity and exploratory behavior (pp. 91–103). New York: MacmillanGoogle Scholar
  28. Harlow, H. F., & Harlow, M. K. (1962). Social deprivation in monkeys. Scientific American, 207, 136–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hebb, D. O. (1949). The organization of behavior New York: WileyGoogle Scholar
  30. Hemingway, E. (1998). True at first light New York: ScribnerGoogle Scholar
  31. Hughes, R. (1999). A jerk on one end: Memoirs of a mediocre fisherman New York: BallantineGoogle Scholar
  32. Iacoboni, M., Woods, R., Brass, M., Bekkering, H., Mazziotta, J. C., & Rizzolatti, G. (1999). Cortical mechanisms of imitation. Science, 286, 2526–2528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Johnston, T. D., & Gottlieb, G. (1985). Effects of social experience on visually imprinted maternal preferences in Peking ducklings. Developmental Psychobiology, 18, 261–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jones, S. S. (1996). Imitation or exploration? Young infants’ matching of adults’ oral gestures. Child Development, 67, 1952–1969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. King, A. P., & West, M. J. (1977). Species identification in the North American cowbird: Appropriate responses to abnormal song. Science, 195, 1002–1004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. King, A. P., Sc West, M. J. (1983a). Dissecting cowbird song potency: Assaying a song’s geographic identity and relative appeal. Ethology, 63, 37–50Google Scholar
  37. King, A. P., & West, M. J. (1983b). Female perception of cowbird song: A closed developmental program. Developmental Psychobiology, 16, 335–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. King, A. P., & West, M. J. (1988). Searching for the functional origins of cowbird song in eastern brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater ater). Animal Behaviour, 36, 1575–1588Google Scholar
  39. King, A. P., & West, M. J. (1989). Presence of female cowbirds (Molathrus ater ater) affects vocal improvisation in males. journal of Comparative Psychology, 103, 39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. King, A. P., West, M. J., & Eastzer, D. H. (1986). Female cowbird song perception: Evidence for different developmental programs within the same subspecies. Ethology, 72, 89–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. King, A. P., West, M. J., & Freeberg, T. M. (1996). Social experience affects the process and outcome of vocal ontogeny in two populations of cowbirds. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 110, 276–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kroodsma, D. E. (1978). Aspects of learning in the ontogeny of bird song: Where, from whom, when, how many, which, and how accurately? In G. M. Burghardt & M. Bekoff (Eds.), The development of behavior (pp. 215–230). New York: Garland PressGoogle Scholar
  43. Kroodsma, D. E. (1982), Learning and the ontogeny of sound signals in birds. In D. E. Kroodsma & E. H. Miller (Eds.), Acoustic communication in birds (pp. 1–24). New York: Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  44. Kroodsma, D. E. (1989). Suggested experimental designs for song playbacks. Animal Behaviour, 37, 600–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kroodsma, D. E. (1992). Much ado creates flaws. Animal Behaviour, 44, 580–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kroodsma, D. E. (1996). Ecology of passerine song development. In D. E. Kroodsma & E. H. Miller (Eds.), Ecology and evolution of acoustic communication in birds (pp. 3–19). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University PressGoogle Scholar
  47. Kroodsma, D. E., & Baylis, J. R. (1982). Appendix: A world survey of evidence for vocal learning in birds. In D. E. Kroodsma & E. H. Miller (Eds.), Acoustic communication in birds (pp. 311–337). New York: Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  48. Kuo, Z. Y. (1967). The dynamics of behavioral development: An epigenetic view New York: Random HouseGoogle Scholar
  49. Lehrman, D. S. (1970). Semantic and conceptual issues in the nature-nuture problem. In L. R. Aronson, E. Tobach, D. S. Lehrman, & J. S. Rosenblatt (Eds.), Development and evolution of behavior: Essays in memory of T C. Schneirla (pp. 17–52). San Francisco: FreemanGoogle Scholar
  50. Lehrman, D. S. (1974). Can psychiatrists use ethology? In N. F. White (Eds.), Ethology and psychiatry (pp. 187–196). Toronto: University of Toronto PressGoogle Scholar
  51. Lickliter, R., & Gottlieb, G. (1987). Social specificity: Interaction with own species is necessary to foster species species-specific maternal preferences in ducklings. Developmental Psychobiology, 21, 311–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lickliter, R., Dyer, A. B., Sc McBride, T. (1993). Perceptual consequences of early social experience in precocial birds. Behavioural Processes, XX 1–16Google Scholar
  53. Lorenz, K. (1957). Companionship in bird life, In C. H. Schiller (Eds.), Instinctive behavior: The development of a modern concept (pp. 82–128). New York: International Universities PressGoogle Scholar
  54. Majerus, M. E. N. (1998). Melanism: Evolution in action Oxford: Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  55. Marier, P., Sc Nelson, D, A. (1993). Action-based learning: A new form of developmental plasticity in bird song. Netherlands Journal of Zoology, 43, 91–103Google Scholar
  56. Mayr, E. (1974). Behavior programs and evolutionary strategies. American Scientist, 62, 650–659Google Scholar
  57. Michel, G. F., & Moore, C. L. (1995). Developmental Psychobiology. Cambridge, MA: MIT PressGoogle Scholar
  58. Millar, C., & Lambert, D. (1999). BioScience, 49, 1021–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nelson, D. A., & Marter, P. (1994). Selection-based learning in bird song development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 91, 10498–10501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nixdorf-Bergweiler, B. E., Lips, M. B., & Heinemann, U. (1995). Electrophysiological and morphological evidence for a new projection of LMAN-neurons towards area X. Neuroreport,6, 1729–1732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Oyama, S. (1985). The ontogeny of information: Developmental systems and evolution Cambridge: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  62. Page, J. R. E., Sc Robinson, G. E. (1991). The genetics of division of labor in honey bee colonies. Advances in Insect Physiology, 23, 118–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Payne, R. B., & Payne, L. L. (1997). Social learning of bird song: Field studies of indigo buntings and village indogobirds. In C. T. Snowdon & M. Hausberger (Eds.), Social influences on vocal development (pp. 57–84). Cambridge: Cambridge University PressCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Payne, R. B., Payne, L. L., Woods, J. L., & Sorenson, M. D. (2000). Imprinting and the origin of parasite-host species associations in brood parasitic indigobirds, Vidna chalybeata. Animal Behaviour, 59, 69–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Previde, P. E., & Poli, M. D. (1996). Social learning in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 110, 203–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rowland, W.J. (1994). Proximate determinants of stickleback behavior. In M. A. Bell & S. A. Foster (Eds.), The evolutionary biology the threespine stickleback (pp. 297–344). Oxford: Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  67. Rozzi, R. (1999). The reciprocal links between evolutionary-ecological sciences and environmental ethics. BioScience, 49, 911–921Google Scholar
  68. Schank, J. C., & Alberts, J. R. (1997). Self-organized huddles of rat pups modeled by simple rules of individual behavior. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 189, 11–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Searcy, W. A (1992). Measuring responses of female birds to male song. In P. K. McGregor (Eds.), Playback and studies of animal communication (pp. 175–189). New York: Plenum PressGoogle Scholar
  70. Seaton, M. (1992). The sea among the cupboards Minneapolis, MN: New Rivers PressGoogle Scholar
  71. Shimizu, T., & Karten, H. J, (1993), The avian visual system and the evolution of the neocortex. In H. P. Ziegler & H.J. Bishof (Eds.), Vision, brain, and behavior in birds (pp. 103–114). Cambridge MA: MIT PressGoogle Scholar
  72. Shimizu, T., Katz, J. S., & Cook, R. G. (1997). Effects of thalamic and telencephalic lesions on visual texture discrimination in birds. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 23, 453Google Scholar
  73. Slater, P. J. B. (1983). Bird song learning: Theme and variations, In A. H. Brush & G. A. Clark Jr. (Eds.), Perspective in ornithology (pp. 475–499). Cambridge: Cambridge University PressCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sluckin, W. (1965). Imprinting and early earning Chicago: AldineGoogle Scholar
  75. Smith, L. B., Thelen, E., Titzer, R., & Mclin, D. (1999). Knowing in the context of acting: The task dynamics of the A not-B error. Psychological Review, 106, 235–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Smith, V. I., King, A. P., & West, M. J. (2000). A role of her own: Female cowbirds influence male song development. Animal Behavior, 60, 599–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Smith, V. I., King, A. P., & West, M. J. (2001). The context of social learning: Association patterns in a captive flock of brown headed cowbirds. Animal Behavior, in pressGoogle Scholar
  78. Suzuki, D., & Knudston, P. (1989). Genetics: The ethics of engineering life London: Unwin & HymanGoogle Scholar
  79. Terkel, J. (1996). Cultural transmission of feeding behaviors in the Black rat (Rattus rattus) In C. M. Heyes & B. G. Galef (Eds.), Social learning in animals: The roots of culture (pp. 17–47). San Diego, CA: Academic PressCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Thelen, E., & Smith, L. B. (1994). A dynamic systems approach to the development of cognition and action Cambridge, MA: MIT PressGoogle Scholar
  81. Thorndike, E. L. (1911/1965). Animal intelligence New York: HafnerGoogle Scholar
  82. Timberlake, W. (1993). Behavior systems and reinforcement: An integrative approach. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 60, 105–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Timberlake, W., & Silva, F. J. (1994). Observation of behavior, inference of function, and the study of learning. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 1, 73–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wang, Y. C., Jiang, S., & Frost, B. J. (1993). Visual processing in pigeon nucleus rotundus: Luminance, color, motion, and looming subdivisions. Visual Neuroscience, 10, 239–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. West, M. J., & King, A. P. (1980). Enriching cowbird song by social deprivation. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 94, 263–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. West, M. J., & King, A. P. (1985). Social guidance of vocal learning by female cowbirds: Validating its functional significance. Ethology, 70, 225–235Google Scholar
  87. West, M. J., & King, A. P. (1986). Song repertoire development in male cowbirds (Molothrus ater): Its relation to female assessment of song. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 100, 296–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. West, M. J., & King, A. P. (1988a). Female visual displays affect the development of male song in the cowbird. Nature, 334, 244–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. West, M.J., & King, A. P. (1988b). Vocalizations of juvenile cowbirds (Molothrus ater ater) evoke copulatory responses from females. Developmental Psychobiology, 21, 543–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. West, M. J., King, A. P., & Eastzer, D. H. (1981). Validating the female bioassay of cowbird song: Relating differences in song potency to mating success. Animal Behaviour, 29, 490–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. West, M.J., King, A. E, & Arberg, A. A. (1988). An inheritance of niches: The role of ecological legacies in ontogeny. In E. M. Blass (Ed.), Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology, Volume 9, Developmental psychobiology and behavioral ecology (pp. 41–62). New York: Plenum PressGoogle Scholar
  92. West, M. J., King, A. P., & Duff, M. A. (1990). Communicating about communicating: When innate is not enough. Developmental Psychobiology, 23, 585–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. West, M.J., King, A. P., & Freeberg, T. M. (1994). The nature and nurture of neophenotypes. In L. A. Real (Eds.), Behavioral mechanisms in evolutionary ecology (pp. 238–257). Chicago: University of Chicago PressGoogle Scholar
  94. West, M.J., King, A. P., & Freeberg, T. M. (1996). Social malleability in cowbirds: New measures reveal new evidence of plasticity in the eastern subspecies (Molothrus ater ater). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 110, 15–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. West, M.J., King, A. P., & Freeberg, T. M. (1997). Building a social agenda for birdsong. In C. T. Snowdon & M. Hausberger (Eds.), Social influences on vocal development (pp. 41–56). Cambridge: Cambridge University PressCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wilson, E. 0. (1998). Consilience: The unity of knowledge New York: KnopGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Meredith J. West
    • 1
  • Andrew P. King
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyIndiana UniversityBloomington

Personalised recommendations