Other Diseases Caused by Protozoan

  • F. J. H. N. Braga
Part of the Developments in Nuclear Medicine book series (DNUM, volume 34)


Malaria (also known as paludism) is caused by 4 species of parasites (plasmodia). Disease is transmitted to man by anopheline mosquitoes. Plasmodium falciparum causes the most dangerous form of disease. Malaria is the most important cause of fever and morbidity in the tropical world. In tropical Africa, it is estimated that 400 million people live in endemic areas. The number of clinical malaria was estimated at 75-150 million people in the beginning of the 1990’s. A total of 6,5 million cases occurred outside tropical Africa in 1982. Disease kills 1-3 million people yearly in the world. Malaria has recently been detected in Europe and the USA. Amidst 4,000 Barawan refugees resettling to the United States, 26 were infected by plasmodia (63). The total incidence or reported numbers of malaria infections in Europe increased from 6,840 in 1985 to 7,244 in 1995, with a peak of 8,438 in 1989. The most important importing countries were France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom. In falciparum malaria, the most frequently affected organs are brain, kidneys, lungs and liver. Complicated cerebral malaria causes death in 50% of the cases. A rate of 20% of residual disability is detected in survivors. The role of MRI in brain malaria is well established (64-72). The volume of the brain in patients with acute cerebral malaria is increased, as compared to the volume during the convalescent phase of the disease, which probably results from sequestration of infected erythrocytes and compensatory vasodilatation, rather than from oedema (73). Cerebral volume is smaller during early convalescence than several months later. Focal areas of infarction are frequently seen and temporal lobes and hippocampus are more often affected.


Visceral Leishmaniasis Cerebral Malaria Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Isosorbide Dinitrate Lung Uptake 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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