Diet and Mood

  • David Benton
Chapter

Abstract

It can be argued that relatively minor changes in mood will be amongst the first Symptoms of a poor diet. In at least some of the population, those whose intake of micro-nutrients is marginal although not in the traditional sense deficient, supplementation has been associated with better mood. In addition there have been frequent suggestions that the nature of the macro-nutrients in meals influence how we feel. A major theory has been that a meal high in carbohydrate will increase the rate that tryptophan enters the brain, leading to an increase in the level of the neurotransmitter Serotonin that modulates mood. Although such a mechanism may be important under laboratory conditions it is unlikely to be of significance following the eating of any likely meal. Similarly the pattern of meals, in particular whether breakfast is eaten, influences mood. There are many instances of a diet grossly deficient in a nutrient resulting in changes in mood. There is however, evidence that a marginal intake, in susceptible individuals, has a less dramatic effeet. Given the complexity of the brains chemistry relatively minor changes in the supply of essential nutrients, if they had a multitude of minor influences, might be expected to have a cumulative impact. Arguably the food with the greatest impact on mood is chocolate. Those who crave chocolate tend to do so when they feel emotionally low and the ability to improve mood seems to be a major reason for its consumption.

Keywords

Diet Endorphins Folate Iron Macro-nutrient Micro-nutrient Mood Palatability Selenium Stress Thiamin Vitamin B12 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abou-Saleh MT & Coppen C. 1986. The biology of folate in depression: implications for nutritional hypotheses of the psychoses. J. Psychiatr. Res. 20:91–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baucom DH & Aiken PA. 1981. Effect of depressed mood on eating among obese and non-obese dieting and non-dieting persons. J. Personal. Soc.Psychol. 41: 577–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benton D. 1992. Vitamin-mineral Supplements and intelligence. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 51:295–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benton D. 1999. Chocolate craving: Biological or psychological phenomenon? In: Knight I, editor. Chocolate and Cocoa: Health and Nutrition. Oxford: Blackwell Science, pp 256–278.Google Scholar
  5. Benton D. 2002. Carbohydrate, blood glucose and mood: a review. Submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  6. Benton D & Cook R. 1991. The impact of selenium supplementation on mood. Biol. Psychiatr. 29:1092–1098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benton D & Donohoe RT. 1999. The effects of nutrients on mood. Public Health Nutr. 2: 403–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benton D, Donohoe RT & Brock H. 2001. The association between mood in the morning and the macro-nutrient content of breakfast and lunch. Unpublished findings.Google Scholar
  9. Benton D, Donohoe RT & Slater O. 2001. The influence of breakfasts of different glycaemic indices on memory and mood. Unpublished findings.Google Scholar
  10. Benton D, Greenfield K & Morgan M. 1998. The development of the attitudes to chocolate questionnaire. Personal. Indi. Diff. 24:513–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Benton D, Griffiths R & Haller J. 1997. Thiamine supplementation mood and cognitive functioning. Psychopharmacol. 129:66–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Benton D, Haller J & Fordy J. 1995. Vitamin supplementation for one year improves mood. Neuropsychobiol. 32:98–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Benton D, Slater O & Donohoe RT. 2001. The influence of breakfast and a snack on memory and mood. Physiol. Behav. 74:559–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Botez MI, Botez T & Maag U. 1967. The Wechsler subtests in mild organic brain damage. Brit. J. Psychiat. 113:1291–1295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Botez MI, Fontaine F, Botez T & Bachevalier J. 1977. Folate-responsive neurological and mental disorders: Report of 16 cases. Eur. Neurol. 16:230–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bell IR, Edman JS, Marby DW, Satlin A, Dreier T, Liptzin B, Cole JO. 1990. Vitamin B12 and folate Status in acute geropsychiatric inpatients: affective and cognitive characteristics of a vitamin nondeficient population. Biol. Psychiat. 27:125–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bellisle F, Louis-Sylvestre J, Linet N, Rocaboy B, Dalle B, Cheneau F, L’Hinoveet D, Guyot L. 1990. Anxiety and food intake in men. Psychosom. Med. 52:452–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brozek J. 1957. Psychological effects of thiamine restriction and deprivation in normal young men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 5:109–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Buffenstein R, Poppitt SD, McDevitt RM & Prentice AM. 1995. Food intake and the menstrual cycle: a retrospective analysis with implications for appetite research. Physiol. Behav. 58:1067–1077.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Calvaaresi E & Bryan J. 2001. B vitamin, Cognition and aging: a review. J. Geront. Series B. Psychol. Sci. Soc. Sci. 56: P327–P339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carney MWP, Sheffield MT. 1978. Serum folic acid and Bl2 in 272 Psychiatric inpatients. Psychol. Med. 8:139–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chome J, Paul T, Pudel V, Bleyl H, Heseker H, Huppe R & Kubler, W. 1986. Effects of suboptimal vitamin Status on behavior. Bibliotheca Nutr. Dieta._38:94–104.Google Scholar
  23. Davies GJ, Collins ALP & Mead JJ. 1993. Bowel habit and dietary fibre intake before and during menstruation. J. Royal Soc. Health 113:64–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. de Castro JM. 1987. Macronutrient relationships with meal patterns and mood in spontaneous feeding behavior of humans. Physiol. Behav. 39: 561–569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Deijen JB, Heemstra ML & Orlebeke JF. 1989. Dietary effects on mood and Performance. J. Psychiat. Res. 23:275–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Drewowski A, Gosnell B, Krahn DD & Canum K. 1989. Sensory preferences for sugar and fat: evidence for opioid involvement. Appetite 12:206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Drewnoski A & Greenwood MRC. 1983. Cream and sugar: human preferences for high-fat foods. Physiol. Behav. 30:629–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dum J, Gramsch CH & Herz A. 1983. Activation of hypothalamic beta-endorphin pools by reward induced by highly palatable food. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 18:443–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Exton-Smith AN & Scott DL, eds. 1968. Vitamins in the elderly. Bristol: John Wright and Son.Google Scholar
  30. Fantino M, Hosotte J & Apfelbaum M. 1986. An opioid anatgonist naltrexone reduces preference for sucrose in humans. Amer. J. Physiol. 251: R91–R96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Finley JW & Penland JG. 1998 Adequacy or deprivation of dietary selenium in healthy men: clinical and psychological findings. J. Trace Elem. Exp. 1 Med. 11, 11–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fordy J & Benton D. 1994. Does low iron Status influence psychological functioning? J. Human Nutr. Dietet. 7:127–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Friedman D & Jaffe A. 1985. Influence of life-style on the premenstrual Syndrome. Analysis of a questionnaire survey. J. Reprod. Med. 30: 715–719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gosnell BA, Krahn DD & Majchrzak MJ. 1990. The effects of morphine on diet selection are dependent upon baseline diet preferences. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 37: 207–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Greeno CG & Wing R.R. 1994. Stress-induced eating. Psychol. Bull. 115: 444–464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Giraudo SQ, Grace MK, Welch CC, Billington CJ & Levine AS. Naloxone’s anoretic effect is dependent upon the relative palatability of food. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 1993; 46: 917–921.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hawkes WC & Hornbostel L. 1996. Effects of dietary selenium on mood in healthy men living in a metabolic research unit. Biol. Psychiatr. 39, 121–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Heatherton TF, Herman CP & Polivy J. 1991. Effects of physical threat and ego threat on eating behavior. J.Personal. Soc. Psychol. 60: 138–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hector M & Burton JR. 1988. What are the Psychiatric manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency? J. Am. Ger. Soc. 36:1105–1112.Google Scholar
  40. Herman CP, Polivy J, Lank CN. 1987. Heatherton TF. Anxiety hunger and eating behavior. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 96: 264–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Heseker H, Kubler W, Westenhofer J & Pudel V. 1990. Psychische Veranderungen als Fruhzeichen einer suboptimalen Vitaminversorgung Ernahrungs-Umschau 37: 87–94Google Scholar
  42. Hill AJ, Weaver CFL, Blundell & JE. 1991. Food craving, dietary restraint and mood. Appetite 17: 187–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hunt JR & Penland JG. 1999. Iron Status and depression in premenopausal women: a MMPI study. Behav, Med. 25: 62–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hunter R, Jones M, Jones TG & Matthews DM. Serum B12 and folate concentrations in mental patients associated with folate deficiency. Psychol. Med. 1984; 14: 31–437.Google Scholar
  45. Keith RE, O’Keefe KA, Blessing DL & Wilson DG. 1991. Alternations in dietary carbohydrate, protein and fat intake and mood State in trained females cyclists. Med. Sci. Sports Exer. 23: 212–216.Google Scholar
  46. Kim W, Kelay J, Judd J, Marshall MW, Metz W & Prather ES. 1987. Evaluation of long-term dietary intakes of adults consuming self-selected diets. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 40: 1327–1332.Google Scholar
  47. Kinsman RH & Hood J. Some behavioral effects of ascorbic acid deficiency. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 24: 455–464.Google Scholar
  48. Koch JE & Bodnar RJ. 1993. Involvement of mu1 and mu2 opioid receptor Subtypes in tail-pinch feeding in rats. Physiol. Behav. 53: 603–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Krauchi K & Wirz-Justice A. 1988. The four seasons: food intake frequency in seasonal affective disorder in the course of a year. Psychiat. Res. 25:323–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Levine AS, Morley JE, Gosnell BA, Billington CJ & Bartness TJ. 1985. Opioids and consummatory behavior. Brain Res. Bull. 14: 663–672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Levine MD & Marcus MD. 1997. Eating behavior following stress in women with and without Symptoms. Ann. Behav. Med. 19:132–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lester D & Bernard D. 1991. Liking for chocolate depression and suicidal preoccupation. Psychol. Rep. 69: 570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Liberman HR, Wurtman JJ & Chew B. 1986. Changes in mood after carbohydrate consumption among obese individuals. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 44: 772–778.Google Scholar
  54. Lonsdale D & Shamberger RJ. 1980. Red cell transketolase as an indicator of nutritional deficiency. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 33, 205–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Lozoff B. Klein NK, Nelson EC, McClish DK, Manuel M. & Chacon ME. 1998. Behavior of infants with iron-deficiency anemia. Child Dev. 69: 24–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. McCann BS, Warnick GR & Knopp RH. 1990. Changes in plasma lipids and dietary intake accompanying shifts in perceived workload and stress. Psychosomat. Med. 52: 97–108.Google Scholar
  57. Mercer MM & Holder MD. 1997. Food cravings, endogenous opioid peptides and food intake: a review. Appetite 29: 325–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Michaud CI, Kahn JP, Musse N, Burlet C, Nicolas JP & Mejean J. 1990. Relationships between a critical life event and eating behavior in high-school students. Stress Med. 6: 57–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Milman N, Clausen J & Byg KE. 1998. Iron Status in 268 Danish women aged 18–30 years: influence of menstruation, contraceptive method and iron supplementation. Ann. Hematol. 77: 13–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Michener W & Rozin P. 1994. Pharmacolgical versus sensory factors in the satiation of chocolate craving. Physiol. Behav. 56: 419–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mischoulon D. 1996. The role of folate in major depression: Mechanisms and clinical implications. Am. Soc. Clin. Psychopharmacol. Prog. Notes 7: 4–5.Google Scholar
  62. Oliver G & Wardle J. 1999. Perceived effects of stress on food choice. Physiol. Behav. 66: 511–585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Polivy J, Herman PC & McFarlane T. 1994. Effects of anxiety on eating: does palatability moderate distress-induced overeating in dieters. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 103: 505–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Quintas M, Requejo AM, Ortega RM, Redondo MR, Lopez-Sobaler AM & Gaspar MJ. 1997. The female Spanish population: a group at risk of nutritional iron deficiency. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 48: 271–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rangan AM, Blight GD & Binns CW. 1998. Iron Status and non-specific Symptoms of female students. J. Amer. Coli. Nutr. 17: 351–355.Google Scholar
  66. Reid LD. 1985. Endogenous opioid peptides and regulation of drinking and feeding. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 42: 1099–1132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Rosenthal N, Genhart M, Caballero B, Jacobsen FM, Skwerer RG, Coursey RD, Rogers S & Spring BJ. 1989. Psychological effects of carbohydrate- and protein-rich meals in patients with seasonal affective disorder. Biol. Psychiat. 25: 1029–1040.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rozin P, Levine E & Stoess C. 1991. Chocolate craving and liking. Appetite 17: 199–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sayegh R, Schiff I, Wurtman J, Spiers P, McDermott J & Wurtman R. 1995. The effect of a carbohydrate-rich beverage on mood appetite and cognitive function in women with Premenstrual Syndrome. Obstetr. Gynecol. 86: 520–528.Google Scholar
  70. Schotte DA, Cools J & McNaliy RJ. 1990. Film-induced negative affect triggers overeating in restrained eaters. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 99: 317–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Schuman M, Gitlin MJ & Fairbanks L. 1987. Sweets chocolate and atypical depressive traits. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 175: 491–495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Schweiger U, Laessle R & Pirke K. 1987. Macro-nutrient intake and mood during weight-reducing diets. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 499: 335–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Scott BH. 1993. The effect of selenium supplementation on the mood of chronic fatigue Syndrome and healthy control subjects. M.Sc. thesis. University of Canterbury, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  74. Sher L. 2001. Role of thyroid holrmones in the effects of selenium on mood, behavior and cognitive function. Med. Hypothes. 57: 480–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Shor-Posner G. 2000. Selenium supplementation benefits HIV patients: Selenomax decreases risk of development of depressed-dejected mood. J. Assoc. Nurses AIDS Care 11: 103Google Scholar
  76. Shorvon SD, Carney MWP, Chanarin I & Reynolds H. 1980. The neuropsychiatry of megaloblastic anaemia. Br. Med. J. 281: 1036–1038.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Smidt LJ, Cremin FM, Grivetti LE & Clifford AJ. 1991. Influence of thiamin supplementation on the health and general well-being of an elderly Irish population with marginal thiamin deficiency. J. Gerontol. 46: M16–M22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Smith AP, Clark R & Gallagher J. 1999. Breakfast cereal and caffeinated coffee: Effects on working memory, attention, mood and cardiovascular function. Physiol. Behav. 67: 9–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Smith AP, Kendrick A, Maben A & Salmon J. 1994. Effects of breakfast and caffeine on cognitive Performance mood and cardiovascular functioning. Appetite 22: 39–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sterner RT & Price RW. 1973. Restricted riboflavin: within subject behavioral effects in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 26: 150–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Toornvliet AC, Pijl H, Tuinenburg JC, Elte-de Wever BM, Pieters Frolich M, Onkenhout W & Meinders AE. 1997. Psychological and metabolic responses of carbohydrate craving patients to carbohydrate, fat and protein-rich meals. Int. J. Obes. Rel. Metabol. Dis. 21: 860–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tomelleri R & Grunewald KK. 1987. Menstrual cycle and food cravings in young College women. J. Am. Dietet, Assoc. 87: 311–315.Google Scholar
  83. Trenchard E & Silverstone T 1982. Naloxone reduces the food intake of normal human volunteers. Appetite 4: 249–257.Google Scholar
  84. Wardle J, Steptoe A, Oliver G & Lipsey Z. 2000. Stress dietary restraint and food intake. J. Psychosom. Res. 48: 195–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Vlitos ALP & Davies GJ. 1996. Bowel function, food intake and the menstrual cycle. Nutr. Res. Rev. 9: 111–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Weidner G, Kohlmann CW, Dotzauer E & Burns LR. 1996. The effects of academic stress on health behaviors in young adults. Anx. Stress Coping 9: 123–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Weingarten HP & Elston D. 1991. Food cravings in a College population. Appetite 17: 167–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Willner P, Benton D, Brown E, Cheeta S, Davies G, Morgan J & Morgan M. 1998. Depression increases craving for sweet rewards in animal and human models of depression and craving. Psychopharmacol. 136: 272–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wolkowitz OM, Doran MR, Cohen RM, Cohen TN, Wise TN & Pickar D. 1988. Single-dose naloxone acutely reduced eating in obese humans: Behavioral and biochemical effects. Biol. Psychiat. 24: 483–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wurtman JJ, Brzezinzki A, Wurtman RJ & Laferrere B. 1989. Effect of nutrient intake on premenstrual depression. Am. J. Obstet Gynecol. 161: 1228–1234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Wurtman RJ, Hefti F & Melamed E. 1981. Precursor control of neurotransmitter synthesis. Pharmacol. Rev. 32: 315–335.Google Scholar
  92. Wurtman RJ & Wurtman JJ. 1989. Carbohydrates and depression. Sci. Amer. 260: 50–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wurtman RJ & Wurtman JJ. 1995. Brain Serotonin, carbohydrate-carving obesity and depression. Obesity Res. 3: 477S–480S.Google Scholar
  94. Yeomans MR, Wright P, Macleod HA & Critchley JA. 1990. Effects of nalmefene on feeding in humans. Psychopharmacol. 100: 426–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Yokogoshi H & Wurtman RJ. 1986. Meal composition and plasma amino acid ratios: Effect of various proteins or carbohydrates and of various protein concentrations. Metabolism 35: 837–842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Benton
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of WalesSwanseaUK

Personalised recommendations