Skip to main content

Inclusion with Nature: The Psychology Of Human-Nature Relations

  • Chapter
Psychology of Sustainable Development

Summary

Human survival is directly tied to our relationship with the natural environment. Achieving a sustainable lifestyle depends on establishing a balance between the consumption of individuals, and the capacity of the natural environment for renewal. Yet, we often act as ifwe are separate from nature — as if we can get along without nature. Indeed, built environments serve as barriers between individuals and the natural environments in which they live. Offices, schools, homes, cars, restaurants, shopping malls, and many other built environments segregate people from nature. This chapter examines the implicit connection that individuals make between self and nature, and the impact of built environments on these implicit cognitions. A psychological model for inclusion with nature is presented, containing cognitive (connectedness), affective (caring), and behavioral (commitment) components. Implicationsfor theory, design, and sustainability are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 169.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Aron, A., & Fraley, B. (1999). Relationship closeness as including other in the self: Cognitive underpinnings and measures. Social Cognition, 17, 140–160.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aron, A., Aron, E. N., & Smollan, D. (1992). Inclusion of other in the self scale and the structure of interpersonal closeness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 596–612.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aron, A., Aron, E. N., Tudor, M., & Nelson, G. (1991). Close relationship as including other in the self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 241–253.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aron, A., Melinat, E., Aron, E. N., Vallone, R. D., & Bator, R. J. (1997). The experimental generation of interpersonal closeness: A procedure and some preliminary findings. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 363–377.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baumeister, R. (1998). The self. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology (4th ed., Vol. 1, pp. 680–740). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Batson, C. D. (1991). The altruism question. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Batson, C. D., Dyck, J. L., Brandt, J. R., Batson, J. G., Powell, A. L., McMaster, M. R., & Griffitt, C. (1988). Five studies testing two new egoistic alternatives to the empathy-altruism hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 52–77.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Berry, W. (1977). The unsettling of America. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Berscheid, E., & Reis, H. (1998). Attraction and close relationships. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology (4th ed., Vol. 2, pp. 193–281). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, J. D. (1998). The self Boston: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, L. (1995). Ecopsychology and the environmental revolution: An environmental forward. In T. Roszak, M. Gomes, & A. Kanner (Eds.), Ecopsychology: Restoring the earth, healing the mind (pp. xiii–xvi). San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Clayton, P. (1998). Connection on the ice: Environmental ethics in theory and practice. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Clayton, S. (2000). Models of justice in the environmental debate. Journal of Social issues, 56, 459–474.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Clayton, S., & Opotow, S. (Ed.). (1994). Green Justice: Conceptions of Fairness and the Natural World. Journal of Social Issues, Volume 50.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dunlap, R. E., & Van Liere, K. (1978). The “New Environmental Paradigm”: A proposed measuring instrument and preliminary results. Journal of Environmental Education, 9, 10–19.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dunlap, R., Van Liere, K., Mertig, A., & Jones, R. E. (2000). Measuring endorsement of the New Ecological Paradigm: A revised NEP scale. Journal of Social Issues, 56, 425–442.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Freyfogle, E. (1998). Bounded people, boundless lands: Envisioning a new land ethic. Washington, DC: Island Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gomes, M. E., & Kanner, A. D. (1995). The rape of the well-maidens: Feminist psychology and the environmental crisis. In T. Roszak, M. Gomes, & A. Kanner (Eds.), Ecopsychology: Restoring the earth, healing the mind (pp. 111–121). San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gore, A. (1992). Earth in the balance: Ecology and the human spirit. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

    Google Scholar 

  • Greenwald, A., & Farnham, S. D. (2000). Using the Implicit Association Test to measure self-esteem and self-concept. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 1022–1038.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Greenwald, A., McGhee, D., & Schwartz, J. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464–1480.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Guagnano, G., Dietz, T., & Stem, P. C. (1994). Willingness to pay for public goods: A test of the contribution model. Psychological Science, 5, 411–415.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hertsgaard, M. (1999). Earth odyssey: Around the world in search of our environmental future. New York: Broadway Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hatfield, E., & Rapson, R. L. (1993). Love, sex, and intimacy. New York: HarperCollins.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kahneman, D., Ritov, I., Jacowitz, K., & Grant, P. (1993). Stated willingness to pay for public goods: A psychological perspective. Psychological Science, 4, 310–315.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kaiser, F., & Biel, A. (2000). Assessing general ecological behavior: A crosscultural comparison between Switzerland and Sweden. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 16, 44–52.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kaiser, F., Woelfing, S., & Fuhrer, U. (1999). Environmental attitude and ecological behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 19, 1–19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kals, E., Schumacher, D., & Mondata, L. (1999). Emotional affinity toward nature as a motivational basis to protect nature. Environment and Behavior, 31, 178–202.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Karp, D. G. (1996). Values and their effect on pro-environmental behavior. Environmental and Behavior, 28, 111–133.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kidner, D. (2001). Nature and psyche: Radical environmentalism and the politics of subjectivity. New York: State University of New York Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Leopold, A. (1949). A sand county almanac and sketches here and there. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Markus, H. (1977). Self-schemata and processing information about the self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 63–78.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Markus, H., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Milbrath, L. (1984). Environmentalists: Vanguard for a new society. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nabhan, G. P., & Trimble, S. (1994). The geography of childhood: Why children need wild places. Boston: Beacon Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Olsen, M. E., Lodwick, D. G., & Dunlap, R. (1992). Viewing the world ecologically. Boulder, CO: Westview.

    Google Scholar 

  • Opotow, S. (1994). Predicting protection: Scope of justice and the natural world. Journal of Social Issues, 50, 49–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Opotow, S., & Weiss, L. (2000). Denial and the process of moral exclusion in environmental conflict. Journal of Social Issues, 56, 475–490.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ponting, C. (1991). A green history of the world: The environmental collapse of great civilizations. New York: Penguin Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robinson, J. (1972). Television’s impact on everyday life: Some cross-national evidence. In E. Rubinstein et al. (Eds.), Television and social behavior (pp. 410–431). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robinson, J., & Godbey, G. (1997). Time for life: Surprising ways Americans use their time. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robinson, J., & Silvers, A. (2000). Measuring potential exposure to environmental pollutants: Time spent with soil and time spent outdoors. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 10, 341–354.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rolston, H. (1988). Environmental ethics: Duties to and values in the natural world. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roszak, T. (1992). The voice of the earth. New York: Simon & Schuster.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roszak, T. (1995). Where psyche meets gaia. In T. Roszak, M. Gomes, & A. Kanner (Eds.), Ecopsychology: Restoring the earth, healing the mind (pp. 1–20). San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roszak, T., Gomes, M. E., & Kanner, A. D. (Eds.). (1995). Ecopsychology: Restoring the earth, healing the mind. San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schultz, P. W. (2000). Empathizing with nature: The effects of perspective taking on concern for environmental issues. Journal of Social Issues, 56, 391–406.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schultz, P. W. (2001). Assessing the structure of environmental concern: Concern for self, other people, and the biosphere. Journal of Environmental Psychology.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schultz, P. W., & Zelezny, L. C. (1999). Values as predictors of environmental attitudes: Evidence for consistency across cultures. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 19, 255–265.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of human values? Journal of Social Issues, 50, 19–45.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 165). Orlando, FL: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  • Silvers, A., Florence, B. T., Rourke, D. L., & Lorimar, R. I (1996). How children spend their time: A sample survey for use in exposure and risk assessment. Risk Analysis, 14(6), 931–943.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stem, P. (2000). Toward a coherent theory of environmentally significant behavior. Journal of Social Issues, 56, 407–424.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stem, P., & Dietz, T. (1994). The value basis of environmental concern. Journal of Social Issues, 50(3), 65–84.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stem, P., Dietz, T., Kolaf, L., & Guagnano, G. A. (1995). Values, beliefs, and proenvironmental action: Attitude formation toward emergent attitude objects. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25, 1611–1636.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sternberg, R. J., & Barnes, M. L. (Eds.). (1988). The psychology of love. New Haven: Yale University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Strong, D. (1995). Crazy mountains: Learning from wilderness to weigh technology. New York: State University of New York Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Syme, G., & Fenton, D. (1993). Perceptions of equity and procedural preferences for water allocation decisions. Society and Natural Resources, 6, 347–360.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tamas, R. (1991). The passion of the Western mind. New York: Ballantine Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, P. (1986). Respect for nature: A theory of environmental ethics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thompson, S. G., & Barton, M. A. (1994). Ecocentric and anthropocentric attitudes toward the environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 14, 149–157.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Winter, D. D. (1996). Ecological psychology: Healing the split between self andplanet. New York: HarperCollins.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2002 Springer Science+Business Media New York

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Schultz, P.W. (2002). Inclusion with Nature: The Psychology Of Human-Nature Relations. In: Schmuck, P., Schultz, W.P. (eds) Psychology of Sustainable Development. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-0995-0_4

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-0995-0_4

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Boston, MA

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4613-5342-3

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4615-0995-0

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive

Publish with us

Policies and ethics