The Mathematical Theory of Information pp 364-396 | Cite as

# Control and Communication

Chapter

## Abstract

We have seen that a *closed* system will reach a steady state as the time passes (Section 11.1). That is not the case with an *open* system, which is subject to a multitude of influences. If such a system reacts to all the impulses, its behaviour would be complicated beyond description. The open system must have the capability of damping an outside impulse, so that the memory of its influence is erased.

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### Reference

- [1]Wiener approaches the cincept of
*ideal receiver*in his treatment of the prediction problem for time-series today referred to as the Wiener-Kolmogoroff theory Papiulis, 1965, p.400.Google Scholar - [2]Here in human perspective. The relativistic effects, “the measurement of space is dependent on the measurement of time” Reichenbach, 1980, p. 113, will be discussed later (Section 13.10).Google Scholar
- [4]Computer optimization methods include
*Linear programming*and*Dynamic programming*Savas, 1965, p. 133.. 145.Google Scholar - [5]Here the industrial control differs from the biological, where the control of movement (= the higher level) is faster than the homeostasis (= the lower level) Wiener, 1948, p. 135.Google Scholar
- [6]This definition differs from the American standard definition of a regulator: “A
*controller*in which all the energy to operate the*final control element*is derived from the*controlled system*” ANSI/ISA, 1979, p. 13).Google Scholar - [7]Applied to approximations of non-linear systems, it is called Aizerman’s method Donalson, 1965, p. 193.Google Scholar
- [8]Originally published in the 1942
*Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers*, Volume 64, pages 759-768.Google Scholar - [11]Other considerations lead to a different result, “integrated error varies with deadtime squared” Shinskey, 1998, p.4, which still agrees that a time-lag is bad for control.Google Scholar
- [12]
**self-regulation**— The property of a*process*or a machine which permits attainment of equilibrium, after a*disturbance*, without the intervention of a*controller*ANSI/ISA, 1979, p.28.Google Scholar - [16]The only figure in
*The Origin of Species*represents this taxonomical tree Darwin, ed. 1872, p.90-91,insert.Google Scholar - [17]This unlikeliness is referred to as Dollo’s law, which is “really just a statement about the statistical improbability of following exactly the same evolutionary trajectory twice… in either direction” Dawkins, 1988, p.94, which makes Dollo’s law a consequence of the Law of diminishing information.Google Scholar
- [19]There is, however, an area in the brain containing a map of the visual field of the eye. “The most likely reason is that it keeps the brain’s wiring shorter” Crick, 1995, p. 145.Google Scholar

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002