The Discriminative Stimulus and Response Enhancing Properties of Reward Produced Memories

  • E. J. Capaldi


In this chapter I present a theory which is capable of explaining a wide variety of learning phenomena. Two such phenomena will be emphasized here: serial learning and reward magnitude effects. I shall focus exclusively on a particular type of serial learning, reward outcome serial learning. In that type of serial learning, the stimuli which constitute the series are different qualities or quantities of food items presented successively in a regular order which must be learned. In other types of serial learning, not of immediate concern here, the stimuli might be geometric forms, color, etc. which are presented simultaneously rather than successively (e.g., D’Amato, 1991; Terrace, 1991).


Reward Event Large Reward Reward Magnitude Small Reward Serial Learning 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amsel, A. (1958). The role of frustrative nonreward in noncontinuous reward situations. Psychological Bulletin, 55, 102–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amsel, A. (1992). Frustration theory: An analysis of dispositional learning and memory. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bloom, J. M., & Capaldi, E. J. (1961). The behavior of rats in relation to complex patterns of partial reinforcement. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 54, 261–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Capaldi, E. J. (1964). Effect of N-length, number of different N-lengths, and number of reinforcements on resistance to extinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68, 230–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Capaldi, E. J. (1966). Partial reinforcement: A hypothesis of sequential effects. Psychological Review, 73, 459–477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Capaldi, E. J., (1967). A sequential hypothesis of instrumental learning. In K. W. Spence & J. T. Spence (Eds.), Psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 1, pp. 67–156). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  7. Capaldi, E. J. (1992). Levels of organized behavior in rats. In W. K. Honig & G. Fetterman (Eds.), Cognitive aspects of stimulus control (pp. 385–404). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  8. Capaldi, E. J. (1993). Animal number abilities: Implications for a hierarchical approach to instrumental learning. In S. T. Boysen & E. J. Capaldi (Eds.), The development of numerical competence: Animal and human models (pp. 191–209). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  9. Capaldi, E. J. (1994). The sequential view: From rapidly fading stimulus traces to the organization of memory and the abstract concept of number. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1, 156–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Capaldi, E. J., Berg, R., & Morris, M. D. (1975). Stimulus control of responding in the early trials of differential conditioning. Learning & Motivation, 6, 217–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Capaldi, E. J., Birmingham, K. M., & Aiptekin, S. (1995). Memories of reward events and expectancies of reward events may work in tandem. Animal Learning & Behavior, 23, 40–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Capaldi, E. J., & Miller, D.J. (1988). Counting in rats: Its functional significance and the independent cognitive processes that constitute it. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 14, 3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Capaldi, E. J., Miller, D. J., & Aiptekin, S. (1988). Numerical aspects of nonreinforcement: The same phase nonreinforcement procedure. Animal Learning & Behavior, 16, 411–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Capaldi, E. J., & Molina, P. (1979). Element discriminability as a determinant of serial pattern learning. Animal Learning & Behavior, 7, 318–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Capaldi, E. J, Nawrocki, T. M., Miller, D. J., & Verry, D. R. (1986). Time between events as a retrieval cue: Recall and the temporal similarity between the storage and retrieval intervals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavioral Processes, 12, 258–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Capaldi, E. J., Nawrocki, T. M., & Verry, D. R. (1983). The nature of anticipation: An inter- and intraevent process. Animal Learning & Behavior, 11, 193–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. D’Amato, M. R. (1991). Comparative cognition: Processing of serial order and serial pattern. In L. Dachowski, & C. F. Flaherty (Eds.), Current topics in animal learning: Brain, emotion, and cognition (pp. 165–185). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  18. Domjan, M. (1993). Domjan and Burkhard’s The Principles of Learning and Behavior. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing.Google Scholar
  19. Fountain, S. B. (1990). Rule abstraction, item memory, and chunking in rat serial pattern tracking. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 16, 96–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hull, C. L. (1931). Goal attraction and directing ideas conceived as habit phenomena. Psychological Review, 38, 487–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hull, C. L. (1943). Principles of behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  22. Hull, C. L. (1949). Stimulus intensity dynamism (V) and stimulus generalization. Psychological Review, 56, 67–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hulse, S. H. (1980). The case of the missing rule: Memory for reward vs. formal structure in serial-pattern learning by rats. Animal Learning & Behavior, 8, 689–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hulse, S. H., & Dorsky, N. P. (1977). Structural complexity as a determinant of serial pattern learning. Learning & Motivation, 8, 488–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kamin, L. J. (1965). Temporal intensity characteristics of the conditioned stimulus. In W. F. Prokasy (Ed.), Classical conditioning: A symposium (pp. 118–147). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  26. Logan, F. A. (1954). A note on stimulus intensity dynamism (V). Psychological Review, 61, 77–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mackintosh, N. J. (1983). Conditioning and associative learning. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  28. Perkins, C. C, Jr. (1953). The relation between conditioned stimulus intensity and response strength. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 46, 225–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rescorla, R. A., & Solomon, R. L. (1967). Two-process learning theory: Relationships between Pavlovian conditioning and instrumental learning. Psychological Review, 74, 151–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rescorla, R. A., & Wagner, A. R. (1972). A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement. In A. H. Black & W. F. Prokasy (Eds.), Classical conditioning: Current research and theory (pp. 64–99). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  31. Roitblat, H. L., Polage, B., & Scopatz, R. A. (1983). The representation of items in serial position. Animal Learning & Behavior, 11, 489–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Spence, K. W. (1956). Behavioral theory and conditioning. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Terrace, H. A. (1991). Chunking during serial learning by a pigeon: I. Basic evidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 17, 81–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Trapold, M. A., & Overmier, J. B. (1972). The second learning process in instrumental learning. In A. H. Black & W. F. Prokasy (Eds.), Classical conditioning II: Current theory and research (pp. 427–452). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  35. Wagner, A. R. (1961). Effects of amount and percentage of reinforcement and number of acquisition trials on conditioning and extinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 234–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. J. Capaldi
    • 1
  1. 1.Purdue UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations