Advertisement

The Comparative Psychology of Chunking

Chapter

Abstract

The ability to learn arbitrary sequences is crucial for intelligent action, both verbal and non-verbal. For more than a century, psychologists have investigated the organization of such sequences in experiments on the memorization of nonsense syllables (Ebbinghaus, 1964) and the mastery of various types of mazes (Small, 1900). The results of both types of experiment gave rise the classic theory that serially organized behavior can be represented as a linear sequence of associations.

Keywords

Journal ofExperimental Psychology Animal Behavior Process Serial Learning Animal Cognition Accuracy Criterion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, J. R., & Bower, G. H. (1974). Human associative memory. Washington, DC: Hemisphere Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1971). The Control of Short-term memory. Scientific American, 225, 82–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baddeley, A. (1981). The Concept of Working Memory: A View of its Current State and Probable Future Development. Cognition, 10, 17–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baddeley, A. (1986). Working Memory. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  5. Baddeley, A. (1992). Is Working Memory Working? The Fifteenth Bartlett Lecture. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 44A(1), 1–31.Google Scholar
  6. Bousfield, A. K., & Bousfield, W. A. (1966). Measurement of clustering and of sequential constancies in repeated free recall. Psychological Report, 19, 935–942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bousfield, W. A. (1953). The occurrence of clustering in the recall of randomly arranged associates. Journal of General Psychology, 49, 229–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bousfield, W. A., Puff, C. R., & Cowan, T. M. (1964). The development of constancies in sequential organization during repeated free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 3, 489–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bower, G. (1972a). Perceptual Groups as coding units in immediate memory. Proceedings of the Psychonomic Society, 27(4), 217–219.Google Scholar
  10. Bower, G. (1972b). A selective review of organizational factors in memory. In E. Tulving & W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organization of Memory (pp. 93–137). New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bower, G. H., & Winzenz, D. (1969). Group structure coding and memory for digit series. Journal of Experimental Psychology Monographs, 80(2).Google Scholar
  12. Brannon, E. (1996). Measures of chunking. Unpublished MA, Columbia University, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Broadbent, D. E. (1975). The Magic Number Seven After Fifteen Years. In A. W. Kennedy, Alan (Ed.), Studies in Long-Term Memory (pp. 3–18). London: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  14. Capaldi, E. J., Miller, D. J., Aiptekin, S., & Barry, K. (1990). Organized responding in instrumental learning: Chunks and superchunks. Learning and Motivation, 21, 415–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Capaldi, E. J., Nawrocki, T. M, Miller, D. J, & Verry, D. R. (1986). Grouping chunking memory and learning. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38B, 53–80.Google Scholar
  16. Chen, S., Swartz, K., & Terrace, H. S. (1997). Knowledge of the Ordinal Position of List Items in Rhesus Monkeys. Psychological Science, 8, 80–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen, S., Swartz, K., & Terrace, H. S. (2000). Serial Learning by Rhesus Monkeys: II. Learning 4-item Lists by Trial & Error. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavioral Processes, 26, 274–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chen, S., Swartz, K. B., & Terrace, H. S. (1991). Preliminary evidence for the development of learning set for 4-item lists by rhesus monkeys. Paper presented at the Paper presented at annual meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  19. Chomsky, N. (1957). Syntactic structures. The Hague: Mouton Publishers.Google Scholar
  20. Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  21. Cowan, N. (2001). The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration of mental storage capacity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, 87–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Craik, F. I. M., & Tulving, E. (1975). Depth processing and the retention of words in episodic memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 104, 268–294.Google Scholar
  23. Crowder, R. G. (1976). Principles of learning and memory. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  24. Dallal, N. L., & Meek, W. H. (1990). Hierarchical structures: Chunking by food type facilitates spatial memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 16(1), 69–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ebbinghaus, H. (1964). Memory: A contribution to experimental psychology (Originally published 1885; translated 1913. ed.). New York, NY: Dover.Google Scholar
  26. Ebenholtz, S. M. (1963). Serial learning: position learning and sequential associations. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66, 353–362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Estes, W. K. (1972). An associative basis for coding and organization in memory. In A. W. Melton & E. Martin (Eds.), Coding processes in human memory (pp. 161–190). Washington, DC: Winston.Google Scholar
  28. Fountain, S. B., & Annau, Z. (1984). Chunking sorting and rule learning from serial patterns of brain-stimulation reward by rats. Animal Learning & Behavior, 12, 265–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fountain, S. B., Henne, D. R., & Hulse, S. H. (1984). Phrasing cues and hierarchical organization in serial learning in rats. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 10, 30–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gardner, H. (1985). The Minds New Science: A History of the Cognitive Revolution. New York, NY: Basic Books Inc.Google Scholar
  31. Hull, C. L. (1932). The goal gradient hypothesis and maze learning. Psychological Review, 39, 25–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hull, C. L. (1952). A behavior system: An introduction to behavior theory concerning the individual organism. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  33. Hulse, S. H. (1978). Cognitive structure and serial pattern learning by animals. In S. Hulse & H. Fowler & W. K. Honig (Eds.), Cognitive processes in animal behavior (pp. 311–340). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  34. Jaswal, V. (1995). Acquisition of 8-item simultaneous chain by human subjects. Unpublished manuscript, New York.Google Scholar
  35. Johnson, N. F. (1970). Chunking and organization in the process of recall. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation (Vol. IV). New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  36. Johnson, N. F. (1972). Organization and the concept of a memory code. In A. W. Melton & E. Martin (Eds.), Coding processes in human memory (pp. 125–159). Washington, DC: Winston.Google Scholar
  37. Keppel, G., & Underwood, B. J. (1962). Proactive inhibition in short-term retention of single items. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1, 153–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lashley, K. S. (1951). The problem of serial order in behavior. In L. A. Jeffries (Ed.), Cerebral mechanisms in behavior (pp. 112–136). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  39. Mandler, G., & Dean, P. J. (1969). Seriation: Development of serial order in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81(2), 207–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McGonigle, B., & Chalmers, M. (1996). The ontology of order. In L. Smith (Ed.), Critical Readings on Piaget (pp. 279–311). New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63(2), 81–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mishkin, M., & Petri, H. L. (1984). Memories & habits: Some implications for the analysis of learning and retention. In L. R. Squire & N. Butters (Eds.), Neuropsychology of Memory, (pp. 287–296). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  43. Murdock, B. B. (1993). TODAM2: A model for the storage and retrieval of item, associative, and serial-order information. Psychological Review, 100(2), 183–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ohshiba, N. (1997). Memorization of serial items by Japanese monkeys, a chimpanzee, and humans. Japanese Psychological Research, 39, 236–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Osgood, C. E. (1953). Method and theory in experimental psychology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Premack, D. (1976). Intelligence in Ape and Man. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  47. Rumbaugh, D. M. (1977). Language learning by a chimpanzee: The Lana project. New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  48. Ryan, J. (1969). Grouping and short-term memory: different means and patterns of grouping. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 21, 137–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schneider, W., & Detweiler, M. (1987). A connectionist/control architecture for working memory. The psychology of Learning motivations, 21.Google Scholar
  50. Shiffrin, R. M., & Nosofsky, R. M. (1994). Seven Plus or Minus Two: A Commentary on Capacity Limitations. Psychological Review, 101(2), 357–361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Simon, H. A. (1974). How Big Is a Chunk? Science, 183, 482–488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Skinner, B. F. (1938). The behavior of organisms. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  53. Small, W. S. (1900). An experimental study of the mental processes of the rat. American Journal of Psychology, 11, 80–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Squire, L. R. (1986). Mechanisms of memory. Science, 232, 1612–1619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sternberg, S., Knoll, R. L., & Wright, C. E. (1982). Control of Rapid Action Sequences in Speech and Typewriting. Murray Hill, NJ: Bell Laboratories.Google Scholar
  56. Straub, R. O., Seidenberg, M. S., Bever, T. G., & Terrace, H. S. (1979). Serial learning in the pigeon. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 32, 137–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Swartz, K. B., Chen, S., & Terrace, H. S. (1991). Acquisition of 6-item lists by rhesus monkeys. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association annual meeting.Google Scholar
  58. Swartz, K. B., Chen, S., & Terrace, H. S. (1991a). Serial Learning by Rhesus Monkeys. I: Acquisition and Retention of Multiple Four-item lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 17, 396–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Swartz, K. B., Chen, S., & Terrace, H. S. (1991b). Acquisition of 6-item lists by rhesus monkeys. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association annual meeting.Google Scholar
  60. Terrace, H. (1991). Chunking during serial learning by a pigeon: I. Basic evidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 17(1), 81–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Terrace, H., & Chen, S. (1991). Chunking during serial learning by a pigeon: II. Integrity of a chunk on a new list. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 17(1), 94–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Terrace, H., & Chen, S. (1991). Chunking during serial learning by a pigeon: III. What are the necessary conditions for establishing a chunk? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 17(1), 107–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Terrace, H. S. (1979). Is problem solving language? A review of Premack’s Intelligence in Apes and Man. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 31, 161–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Terrace, H. S. (1984). Simultaneous chaining: The problem it poses for traditional chaining theory. In M. L. Commons & R. J. Herrnstein & A. R. Wagner (Eds.), Quantitative Analyses of Behavior: Discrimination Processes (pp. 115–138). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  65. Terrace, H. S. (1987). Chunking by a pigeon in a serial learning task. Nature, 325, 149–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Terrace, H. S. (2001). Serial Expertise and the Evolution of Language. In A. Wray & J. R. Hurford & F. Newmeyer (Eds.), The Transition to Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Terrace, H. S., Jaswal, V., Brannon, E., & Chen, S. (1996). What is a chunk? Ask a monkey. Abstracts of Psychonomic Society, 1, 35.Google Scholar
  68. Terrace, H. S., Son, L., & Brannon, E. (2000). The development of serial expertise by rhesus macaques. Nature, (under review).Google Scholar
  69. Thorpe, C. E. a. R., George E. (1965). The Effect of “Natural” Grouping of Numerals on Short Term Memory. Human Factors, 7, 38–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Underwood, B. J. (1957). Interference and forgetting. Psychological Review, 64, 49–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Weiskrantz, L. (1970). A Long-Term View of Short-Term Memory in Psychology. In G. Horn & R. A. Hinde (Eds.), Short-term Changes in Neural Activity and Behaviour.Google Scholar
  72. Wickelgren, W. A. (1964). Size of rehearsal group and short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68(4), 413–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wickelgren, W. A. (1967). Rehearsal grouping and the hierarchical organization of serial position cues in short-term memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 19, 97–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wilkes, A. L. (1975). Encoding Processes and Pausing Behaviour. In A. a. W. Kennedy, Alan (Ed.), Studies in Long-Term Memory (pp. 19–42): John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  75. Wilkes, A. L., & Kennedy, R. A. (1969). Relationship Between Pausing and Retrieval Latency in Sentences of Varying Grammatical Form. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 79(2), 241–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wilkes, A. L., Lloyd, P., & Simpson, I. (1972). Pause measures during reading and recall in serial list learning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 24, 48–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Columbia UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations