Morphology in Electrochemical Atomic Layer Epitaxy

  • Kris Varazo
  • Travis L. Wade
  • Billy H. FlowersJr.
  • Marcus D. Lay
  • Uwe Happek
  • John L. Stickney

Abstract

Compound semiconductors are an important group of materials, used in a wide variety of optoelectronic devices, including detectors, displays and photovoltaics. They are generally used in the form of thin films, deposited by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), chemical vapor deposition (CVD), or one of a variety of low-tech methods, such as chemical bath deposition (CBD) or electrodeposition. Compound electrodeposition has been well reviewed by a number of workers1–5.

Keywords

Zinc Quartz Furnace Corn Cadmium 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    G. F. Fulop and R. M. Taylor, Electrodeposition of compound semiconductors, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 15, 197(1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. Rajeshwar, Electrosynthesized thin Films of Group II-VI compound semiconductors, alloys and superstructures, Adv. Mater. 4, 23 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    G. Hodes, in “Physical Electrochemistry” (I. Rubinstein, ed.), p. 515. Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. K. Pandey, S. N. Sahu and S. Chandra, “Handbook of Semiconductor Electrodeposition” A. M. Hermann,Ed., Applied Physics, A series of Professional Reference Books Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1996.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. L. Stickney, in “Electroanalytical Chemistry” (A. J. Bard and I. Rubenstein, eds.), p. 75. Marcel Dekker,New York, 1999.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    B. W. Gregory and J. L. Stickney, Electrochemical Atomic Layer Epitaxy (EC-ALE), J. Electroanal. Chem.300,543(1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C. H. L. Goodman and M. V. Pessa, Atomic Layer Epitaxy, J. Appl. Phys. 60, R65 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    T. F. Kuech, P. D. Dapkus and Y. Aoyagi, “Atomic Layer Growth and Processing” Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, 1991.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Bedair, “Atomic Layer Epitaxy” Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    L. Niinisto and M. Leskela, Atomic Layer Epitaxy - Chemical Opportunities and Challenges, Thin Solid Films 225, 130(1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. M. Kolb, in “Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering” (H. Gerischer and C. W.Tobias, eds.), p. 125. John Wiley, New York, 1978.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Juttner and W. J. Lorenz, Underpotential Metal Deposition on Single Crystal Surfaces, Z Phys. Chem. N.F. 122, 163(1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. R. Adzic, in “Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering” (H. Gerishcher and C. W.Tobias, eds.), p. 159. Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1984.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. A. Gewirth and B. K. Niece, Electrochemical applications of in situ scanning probe microscopy, Chem.Rev. 97, 1129(1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    E. Herrero, L. J. Buller and H. D. Abruna. Underpotential Deposition at Single Crystal Electrodes Surfaces of Au, Pt, Ag and other Materials, Chem. Rev. 101, 1897 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    T. L. Wade, R. Vaidyanathan, U. Happek and J. L. Stickney, Electrochemical Formation of a III-V Compound Semiconductor Superlattice: InAs/InSb, J. Electroanal. Chem. 500, 322 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. P. Soriaga and J. L. Stickney, in “Modern Techniques in Electroanalytical Chemistry” (P. Vanysek, ed.),p. 1. Wiley & Sons, New York, 1996.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    L. P. Colletti and J. L. Stickney, Optimization of the growth of CdTe thin films formed by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy in an automated deposition system, J. Electrochem. Soc. 145, 3594 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    L. P. Colletti, B. H. Flowers and J. L. Stickney, Formation of thin films of CdTe, CdSe, and CdS by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy, J. Electrochem. Soc. 145, 1442 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    C. E. D. Chidsey, D. N. Loiacono, T. Sleator and S. Nakahara, STM study of the surface morphology of Au on Mica, Surf. Sci. 200, 45 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    R. Emch, J. Nogami, M. M. Dovek, C. A. Lang and C. F. Quate, Characterization of Au surfaces for use as substrates in STM studies, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 79 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. 1. Putnam, B. L. Blackford, M. H. Jericho and M. O. Watanabe, Surface topography study of Au deposited on mica using STM: effect of mica temperature, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 217, 276 (1989).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Buchholz, H. Fuchs and J. P. Rabe, Surface structure of thin metallic films on mica as seen by STM,SEM, and LEED, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 857 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. A. DeRose, T. Thundat, L. A. Nagahara and S. M. Lindsay, Gold grown epitaxially on mica: conditions for large area flat faces, Surf. Sci. 256, 102 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    T. L. Wade, et al., Electrochemical Atomic Layer Eptitaxy: Electrodeposition of III-V and II-VI Compounds,, Materials Research Society (Materials Research Society, 2000).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. H. van-der-Merwe, The role of lattice misfit in epitaxy, Crit. Rev. Sol. State Mat. Sci. 7, 209 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. Zur and T. C. McGill, Lattice match: An application to heteroepitaxy, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 378 (1984).+CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    D. W. Suggs and J. L. Stickney, Studies of the Structures Formed By the Alternated Electrodeposition of Atomic Layers of Cd and Te On the Low- Index Planes of Au .1. Leed and Auger Studies, Surf. Sci. 290,362(1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    D. W. Suggs and J. L. Stickney, Studies of the Surface-Structures Formed By the Alternated Electrodeposition of Cd and Te On the Low-Index Planes of Au .2. Stm Studies. Surf. Sci. 290, 375(1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    B. E. Hayden and I. S. Nandhakumar, In situ STM study of CdTe ECALE bilayers on gold, J. Phys. Chem.B 102,4897(1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    T. E. Lister, L. P. Colletti and J. L. Stickney, Electrochemical formation of CdSe monolayers on the low index planes of Au, Isr. J. Chem. 37, 287 (1997).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    U. Demir and C. Shannon, A Scanning-Tunneling-Microscopy Study of Electrochemically Grown Cadmium-Sulfide Monolayers On Au( 111), Langmuir 10, 2794 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    K. Varazo, M. D. Lay and J. L. Stickney, Formations of the first monolayers of CdTe on Au by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (EC-ALE), J. Electroanal. Chem. submitted (2001).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    N. Ikemiya, I. D., Y. K.. V. R. and H. S., Atomic structures and growth morphologies of electrodeposited Te film on Au(100) and Au(l 11) observed by in situ atomic force microscopy, Surf. Sci. 369, 199 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    I. Yagi, J. M. Lantz. S. Nakabayashi, R. M. Corn and K. Uosaki, In situ optical second harmonic generation studies of electrochemical deposition of tellurium on polycrystalline gold electrodes, J. Electroanal.Chem. 401,95(1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    B. E. Hayden and I. S. Nandhakumar, In-situ STM study of Te UPD layers on low index planes of gold, J.Phys. Chem. B 101,7751 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    T. A. Sorenson, T. E. Lister, B. M. Huang and J. L. Stickney, “A Comparison of Atomic Layers Formed by Electrodeposition of Selenium and Tellurium: STM Studies on Au(100) and Au(111)”, J. Electrochem.Soc. 146, 1019(1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    T. Sorenson, A., K. Varazo, D. W. Suggs and J. L. Stickney, Formation of and Phase Transitions in Electrodeposited Tellurium Atomic Layers on Au(l 11), Surf Sci. 470, 197 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    T. E. Lister and J. L. Stickney, Atomic level studies of selenium electrodeposition on gold (111) and gold(110), J. Phys. Chem. 100, 19568(1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    B. M. Huang, T. E. Lister and J. L. Stickney. Se adlattices formed on Au (100), studies by LEED, AES,STM and electrochemistry, Surf. Sci. 392, 27 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    M. Innocenti, G. Pezzatini, F. Forni and M. L. Foresti, CdS and ZnS deposition on Ag(lll) by electrochemcial atomic layer epitaxy, J. Electrochem. Soc. in press (2000).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kris Varazo
    • 1
  • Travis L. Wade
    • 1
  • Billy H. FlowersJr.
    • 1
  • Marcus D. Lay
    • 1
  • Uwe Happek
    • 1
  • John L. Stickney
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations