Early Neolithic the First Farmers in Europe, 7000–5500/5000 BC
In most of Europe the Neolithic is defined as the time segment starting with the first appearance of agricultural communities and lasting until the appearance of bronze metallurgy, which marks the beginning of the Bronze Age. The east Baltic and Russian Neolithic, however is defined by the appearance of pottery and polished stone tools (Gimbutas 1956; Dolukhanov 1979; Rimantienė 1996). Zhilin (2000:287) has pointed out that if Neolithic is defined by the presence of agriculture, then there would be no Neolithic period in the forest zone of eastern Europe. In some countries, however, archaeologists terminate the Neolithic with the appearance of copper-using societies. They employ the terms Eneolithic, in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Copper Age, or Chalcolithic in Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria to describe the period of copper artifact use before the onset of the Bronze Age in Europe. In this survey the so-called Eneolithic period or Copper Age is included in the Neolithic.
KeywordsEmmer Wheat Subsistence Strategy Projectile Point Spell Wheat Mesolithic Site
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