Advertisement

The Tear Film and Defense Against Infection

  • Suzanne M. J. Fleiszig
  • Nancy A. McNamara
  • David J. Evans
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 506)

Abstract

Our research program concerns the pathogenesis of bacterial corneal infection. We are studying the early events occurring when bacteria interact with the corneal surface, since it is these events that determine whether infection ensues or if the cornea can resist disease. Our long-term goals are two-fold: (1) to understand why certain factors, such as contact lens wear or preexisting trauma/disease, promote infection, and (2) to develop new approaches for prevention and therapeutics. How our research goals relate to tear film homeostasis is the subject of this paper.

Keywords

Corneal Epithelium Sodium Hyaluronate Hypotonic Solution Rose Bengal Foreign Body Sensation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    S. M. J. Fleiszig, T. S. Zaidi, E. L. Fletcher, M. J. Preston, and G. B. Pier. Pseudomonas aeruginosa invades corneal epithelial cells during experimental infection. Infect Immun. 62: 3485 (1994).PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. M. J. Fleiszig, T. S. Zaidi, and G. B. Pier. Pseudomonas aeruginosa survival and multiplication within corneal epithelial cells in vitro. Infect Immun. 63: 4072 (1995).PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. C. Andika, C. Wu, and S. M. J. Fleiszig. Chronic cytotoxicity induced by invasive Pseudomonas aeruginosa is invasion dependent and involves ExsA. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 39: S143 (1998).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. M. J. Fleiszig, T. S. Zaidi, M. J. Preston, M. Grout, D. J. Evans, and G. B. Pier. The relationship between cytotoxicity and epithelial cell invasion by corneal isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Infect Immun. 64:2288 (1996).PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. M. J. Fleiszig, J. P. Wiener-Kronish, H. Miyazaki, V. Vallas, K. E. Mostov, D. Kanada, T. Sawa, T. S. Yen, and D. W. Frank. Pseudomonas aeruginosa-mediated cytotoxicity and invasion correlate with distinct genotypes at the loci encoding exoenzyme S. Infect Immun. 65: 579 (1997).PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. J. Evans, D. W. Frank, V. Finck-Barbançon, C. Wu, and S. M. J. Fleiszig. Pseudomonas aeruginosa invasion and cytotoxicity are independent events, both of which involve protein tyrosine kinase activity. Infect Immun. 66:1453 (1998).PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. A. Cowell, D. Y. Chen, D. W. Frank, A. J. Vallis, and S. M. J. Fleiszig. ExoT of cytotoxic P. aeruginosa prevents uptake by corneal epithelial cells. Infect Immun. 68: 403 (2000).CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    V. Finck-Barbançon, J. Goranson, L. Zhu, T. Sawa, J. P. Wiener-Kronish, S. M. J. Fleiszig, C. Wu, L. Mende-Mueller, and D. W. Frank. ExoU expression by Pseudomonas aeruginosa correlates with acute cytotoxicity and epithelial injury. Mol Microbiol. 25: 547 (1997).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. M. J. Fleiszig, E. J. Lee, C. Wu, R. C. Andika, V. Vallas, M. Portoles, and D. W. Frank. Cytotoxic strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa can damage the intact corneal surface in vitro. CLAO J. 24: 41 (1998).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. Ramphal, M. T. McNiece, and F. D. Polack. Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the injured cornea. A step in the pathogenesis of corneal infections. Ann Ophthalmol. 100:1956 (1981).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. S. Engel, J. A. Hobden, J. M. Moreau, M. C. Callegan, J. M. Hill, and R. J. O’Callaghan. Pseudomonas deficient in protease IV has significantly reduced corneal virulence. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 38:1535 (1997).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. A. Sack, K. O. Tan, and A. Tan. Diurnal tear cycle: evidence for a nocturnal inflammatory constitutive tear fluid. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 33. 626 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. M. J. Fleiszig, T. S. Zaidi, R. Ramphal, and G. B. Pier. Modulation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa adherence to the corneal surface by mucus. Infect Immun. 62: 1799 (1994).PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    N. A. McNamara, and S. M. J. Fleiszig. Human tear film components bind Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Adv Exp Med Biol. 438: 653 (1998).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. Sack, B. Bogart, A. Beaton, S. Sathe, and G. Lew. Diurnal variations in tear glycoproteins. Evidence for an epithelial origin for the major non-reducible ≥ 450 kDa sialoglycoprotein(s). Curr Eye Res. 16: 577 (1997).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    N. A. McNamara, R. Sack, and S. M. J. Fleiszig. Mucin-bacterial binding assays. Glycoprotein methods and protocols: the mucins. Methods Mol Biol. 125: 429 (2000).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    S. M. J. Fleiszig, D. J. Evans, N. Do, S. Shin, and K. E. Mostov. Epithelial cell polarity affects susceptibility to Pseudomonas aeruginosa invasion and cytotoxicity. Infect Immun. 65: 2861 (1997).PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. J. Fleiszig, V. Vallas, C. H. Jun, L. Mok, D. F. Balkovetz, M. G. Roth, and K. E. Mostov. Susceptibility of epithelial cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa invasion and cytotoxicity is upregulated by hepatocyte growth factor. Infect Immun. 66: 3443 (1998).PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    N. A. McNamara, R. Van, O. Tuchin, and S. M. J. Fleiszig. Ocular surface epithelia express mRNA for human beta defensin 2. Exp Eye Res. 69: 483 (1999).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suzanne M. J. Fleiszig
    • 1
  • Nancy A. McNamara
    • 1
  • David J. Evans
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Morton D. Sarver Laboratory for Cornea and Contact Lens Research, School of OptometryUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Touro University College of Osteopathic MedicineVallejoUSA

Personalised recommendations