Expression of Cold-Regulated (cor) Genes in Barley
Barley is grown either in the northern countries close to the polar circle or on the Himalayan mountains up to 4500 m on the sea level. Such a great diffusion, despite the differences in the climatic conditions, already suggests that the barley gene pool should contain characters for wide environmental adaptability and good stress resistance. The genetic adaptation to cold climate can be achieved either by evolving a powerful frost tolerance ability or by limiting the life cycle to the short summer season (escape strategy). It is a known fact that the winter barley varieties are less hardy than winter wheat, rye and triticale, nevertheless barley is grown till the Polar Circle because spring early maturity cultivars are able to run their life cycle in the short summer season. Plant growth habit and heading date can therefore be considered as the basic traits involved in barley adaptation to environments since they allow to synchronise the plant life cycle with seasonal changes. Nevertheless because winter barley has a higher yielding potential than spring ones, there is a great interest to improve its frost resistance capacity.
KeywordsMaize Tyrosine Glycine Arginine Dehydration
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Cattivelli L, Baldi P., Crosatti C., Di Fonzo N., Faccioli P., Grossi M., Mastrangelo A.M., Pecchioni N. and Stanca A.M., Chromosome regions and stress-related sequences involved in resistance to abiotic stress in Triticeae, Plant Mol. Biol. in press.Google Scholar
- Cattivelli L., Baldi P., Crosatti C., Grossi M., Valé G. and Stanca A.M., 2001, Genetic bases of barley physiological response to stressful conditions, in: Barley Science: Recent Advances from Molecular Biology to Agronomy of Yield and Quality G.A. Slafer, J.L. Molina-Cano, J.L. Araus, R. Savin, I. Ramagosa, eds., Food Product Press, New York, USA, pp. 269–314.Google Scholar
- Doll, H., Hahr V. and Sogaard B., 1989, Relationship between vernalization requirement and winter hardiness in double haploid of barley, Euphytica 42: 209–213.Google Scholar
- Faccioli P., Pecchioni N., Cattivelli L., Stanca A.M. and Terzi V., 2001, Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from cold acclimated barley identify novel plant genes, Pant Breed, in press.Google Scholar
- Grossi M., Cattivelli L., Terzi V. and Stanca A.M., 1992, Modification of gene expression induced by ABA, in relation to drought and cold stress in barley shoots, Plant Physiol. Biochem. 30: 97–103.Google Scholar
- Hughes M A., Dunn M.A., Pearce R.S., White A.J. and Zhang L., 1992, An abscisic acid responsive low temperature barley gene has homology with a maize phospholipid transfer protein, Plant Cell Env. 15:861–866.Google Scholar
- Pearce R. S., Houlston C.E., Atherton K.M., Rixon J.E., Harrison P., Hughes M.A. and Dunn M.A., 1998, Localization of expression of three cold-induced genes, blt101, blt4.9 and blt14 in different tissues of the crown and developing leaves of cold-acclimated cultivated barley, Plant Physiol. 117: 787–795.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Russel A.W., Critchley C., Robinson S.A., Franklin L.A., Seaton G.G.R., Chow W-S., Anderson J. and Osmond C.B., 1995, Photosystem II regulation and dynamics of the chloroplast D1 protein in Arabidopsis leaves during photosynthesis and photoinhibition, Plant Physiol. 107: 943–952.Google Scholar
- Snape J.W., Semikhodskii A., Fish L., Sarma R.N., Quarrie S.A., Galiba G. and Sutka J., 1997, Mapping frost tolerance loci in wheat and comparative mapping with other cereals, Acta Agr. Hung. 45: 265–270Google Scholar
- Stanca A.M., Romagosa I., Takeda K., Lundborg T., Terzi V., Cattivelli L., Diversity in abiotic stresses, in:Diversity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), R. von Bothmer, H. Kntipffer, T. van Hintum, K. Sato, eds., Elsievier Science, in press.Google Scholar