Expression of Cold-Regulated (cor) Genes in Barley

Molecular bases and environmental interaction
  • Luigi Cattivelli
  • Cristina Crosatti
  • Caterina Marè
  • Maria Grossi
  • Anna M. Mastrangelo
  • Elisabetta Mazzucotelli
  • Chiara Govoni
  • Gabor Galiba
  • A. Michele Stanca


Barley is grown either in the northern countries close to the polar circle or on the Himalayan mountains up to 4500 m on the sea level. Such a great diffusion, despite the differences in the climatic conditions, already suggests that the barley gene pool should contain characters for wide environmental adaptability and good stress resistance. The genetic adaptation to cold climate can be achieved either by evolving a powerful frost tolerance ability or by limiting the life cycle to the short summer season (escape strategy). It is a known fact that the winter barley varieties are less hardy than winter wheat, rye and triticale, nevertheless barley is grown till the Polar Circle because spring early maturity cultivars are able to run their life cycle in the short summer season. Plant growth habit and heading date can therefore be considered as the basic traits involved in barley adaptation to environments since they allow to synchronise the plant life cycle with seasonal changes. Nevertheless because winter barley has a higher yielding potential than spring ones, there is a great interest to improve its frost resistance capacity.


Cold Acclimation Frost Resistance Frost Tolerance Winter Barley Vernalization Requirement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andersson B., Salter, A.H. Virgin, I. Vass I. and Styring S., 1992, Photodamage to photosystem II-Primary and secondary events, J. Photochem. Photobiol. Ser B Biology 15: 15–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baldi P., Grossi M., Pecchioni N., Valé G. and Cattivelli L., 1999, High expression level of a gene coding for a chloroplastic amino acid selective channel protein is correlated to cold acclimation in cereals, Plant Mol. Biol. 41:233–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baldi P., Valé G., Mazzucotelli E., Govoni C., Faccioli P., Stanca A.M. and Cattivelli L., 2001, The transcrpts of several components of the protein synthesis machinery are cold regulated in a chloroplast-dependent manner in barley and wheat, J. Plant Physiol. 158: 1541–1546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carpenter C.D., Kreps J.A. and Simon A.E., 1994, Genes encoding glycine-rich Arabidopsis thaliana proteins with RNA-binding motifs are influenced by cold treatment and an endogenous circadian rhythm. Plant Physiol. 104: 1015–1025.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cattivelli L, Baldi P., Crosatti C., Di Fonzo N., Faccioli P., Grossi M., Mastrangelo A.M., Pecchioni N. and Stanca A.M., Chromosome regions and stress-related sequences involved in resistance to abiotic stress in Triticeae, Plant Mol. Biol. in press.Google Scholar
  6. Cattivelli L., Baldi P., Crosatti C., Grossi M., Valé G. and Stanca A.M., 2001, Genetic bases of barley physiological response to stressful conditions, in: Barley Science: Recent Advances from Molecular Biology to Agronomy of Yield and Quality G.A. Slafer, J.L. Molina-Cano, J.L. Araus, R. Savin, I. Ramagosa, eds., Food Product Press, New York, USA, pp. 269–314.Google Scholar
  7. Cattivelli L. and Bartels D., 1989, Cold-induced mRNAs accumulate with different kinetics in barley coleoptiles. Planta 178: 184–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cattivelli L. and Bartels D., 1990, Molecular cloning and characterization of cold-regulated genes in barley, Plant Physiol. 93, 1504–1510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen T.H.H. and Gusta L.V., 1983, Abscisic acids-induced freezing resistance in cultured plant cells, Pant Physiol. 71: 362–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Close T.J., 1996, Dehydrins: emerge of a biochemical role of a family of a plant dehydration proteins, Physiol. Plant. 97: 795–803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crosatti C., Rizza F. and Cattivelli L., 1994, Accumulation and characterization of the 75kDa protein induced by low temperature in barley, Plant Sci. 97: 39–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Crosatti C., Soncini C., Stanca A.M. and Cattivelli L., 1995, The accumulation of a cold-regulated chloroplastic protein is light-dependent, Planta 196: 458–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crosatti C., Nevo E., Stanca A.M. and Cattivelli L., 1996, Genetic analysis of the accumulation of COR14 proteins in wild (Hordeum spontaneum) and cultivated (Hordeum vulgare) barley, Theor. Appl. Genet. 93:975–981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crosatti C., Polverino de Laureto P., Bassi R. and Cattivelli L., 1999, The interaction between cold and light controls the expression of the cold-regulated barley gene cor14b and the accumulation of the corresponding protein, Plant Physiol. 119: 671–680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Doll, H., Hahr V. and Sogaard B., 1989, Relationship between vernalization requirement and winter hardiness in double haploid of barley, Euphytica 42: 209–213.Google Scholar
  16. Dunn M.A., Hughes M.A., Pearce R.S. and Jack P.L., 1990, Molecular characterization of a barley gene induced by cold treatment, J. Exp. Bot. 41: 1405–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dunn M.A., Morris A., Jack P.L. and. Hughes M.A, 1993, A low temperature-responsive translation elongation fector 1α from barley (Hordeum vulgare L), Plant Mol. Biol. 23: 221 –225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dunn M.A., White A.J., Vural S. and Hughes M.A., 1998, Identification of promoter elements in a low-temperature-responsive gene (blt4.9) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L), Plant Mol. Biol. 38: 551–564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dunn M.A., Brown K., Lightowlers R.L. and Hughes M.A., 1996, A low temperature-responsive gene from barley encodes a protein with single stranded nucleic acid binding activity which is phosphorylated in vitro, Plant Mol. Biol. 30: 947–959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dunn M.A., Hughes M.A., Zhang L., Pearce R.S., Quigley A.S. and Jack P.L., 1991, Nucleotide sequence and molecular analysis of the low-temperature induced cereal gene, blt4, Mol. Gen. Genet. 229: 389–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dunn M.A., Goddard N.J., Zhang L., Pearce R.S. and Hughes M.A., 1994, Low-temperature-responsive barley genes have different control mechanisms, Plant Mol. Biol. 24: 879–888.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Faccioli P., Pecchioni N., Cattivelli L., Stanca A.M. and Terzi V., 2001, Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from cold acclimated barley identify novel plant genes, Pant Breed, in press.Google Scholar
  23. Fowler D.B., Chauvin L.P., Limin A.E. and Sarhan F., 1996, The regulatory role of vernalization in the expression of low-temperature-induced genes in wheat and rye, Theor. Appl. Genet. 93: 554–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Galiba G., Quarrie S.A., Sutka J., Morgounov A. and Snape J.W., 1995, RFLP mapping of the vernalization (Vrn1) and frost resistance (Fr1) genes on chromosome 5A of wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 90: 1174–1179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Giorni E., Crosatti C., Baldi P., Grossi M., Marè C., Stanca A.M. and Cattivelli L., 1999, Cold-regulated genes expression during winter in frost tolerant and frost susceptible barley cultivars grown under field conditions, Euphytica, 106: 149–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goddard N. J., Dunn M.A., Zhang L., White A.J., Jack P.L. and Hughes M.A., 1993, Molecular analysis and spatial expression pattern of a low-temperature-specific barley gene, blt101, Plant Mol. Biol. 23: 871–879.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gray G.R., Chauvin L-P., Sarhan F. and Huner N.P.A., 1997, Cold acclimation and freezing tolerance. A complex interaction of light and temperature, Plant Physiol. 114: 467–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Grossi M., Giorni E., Rizza F., Stanca A.M. and Cattivelli L., 1998, Wild and cultivated barleys show differences in the expression pattern of a cold-regulated gene family under different light and temperature conditions, Plant Mol. Biol. 38: 1061–1069.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Grossi M., Cattivelli L., Terzi V. and Stanca A.M., 1992, Modification of gene expression induced by ABA, in relation to drought and cold stress in barley shoots, Plant Physiol. Biochem. 30: 97–103.Google Scholar
  30. Grossi M., Gulli M., Stanca A.M. and Cattivelli L., 1995, Characterization of two barley genes that respond rapidly to dehydration stress, Plant Sci. 105: 71–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hayes P.M., Blake T., Chen T.H.H., Tragoonrung S., Chen F., Pan A. and Liu B., 1993, Quantitative trait loci on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) chromosome-7 associated with components of winterhardiness, Genome 36:66–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hommo L.M., 1994. Hadening of some winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars during autumn and final winter survival in Finland, Plant Breed. 112: 285–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hughes M A., Dunn M.A., Pearce R.S., White A.J. and Zhang L., 1992, An abscisic acid responsive low temperature barley gene has homology with a maize phospholipid transfer protein, Plant Cell Env. 15:861–866.Google Scholar
  34. Ismail, A.M., Hall A.E. and Close T.J., 1999, Allelic variation of a dehydrin gene cosegregates with chilling tolerance during seedling emergence, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 13566–13570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Laurie D.A., Pratchett N., Bezant J.H. and Snape J.W., 1995, RFLP mapping of five major genes and eight quantitative trait loci controlling flowering time in a winter X spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cross, Genome 38: 575–585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marcotte, W.R. Jr, Russel S.H., and Quatrano R.S., 1989, Abscisic acid response sequences from the Em gene of wheat, Plant Cell 1: 969–976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Murelli C., Rizza F., Marinone Albini F., Dulio A., Terzi V. and Cattivelli L., 1995, Metabolic changes associated with cold-acclimation in contrasting genotypes of barley, Physiol. Plant. 94: 87–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ouellet, F., Vazquez-Tello A.and Sarhan F., 1998, The wheat wcs120 promoter is cold-inducible in both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, FEBS let. 423: 324–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pan A., Hayes P.M., Chen F., Chen T.H.H., Blake T., Wright S., Karsai I. and Bedö Z., 1994, Genetic analysis of the components of winterhardiness in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), Theor. Appl. Genet. 89: 900–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pearce R. S., Houlston C.E., Atherton K.M., Rixon J.E., Harrison P., Hughes M.A. and Dunn M.A., 1998, Localization of expression of three cold-induced genes, blt101, blt4.9 and blt14 in different tissues of the crown and developing leaves of cold-acclimated cultivated barley, Plant Physiol. 117: 787–795.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pearce R.S., Dunn M.A., Rixon J., Harrison P. and Hughes M.A., 1996, Expression of cold-inducible genes and frost hardiness in the crown meristem of young barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Igri) plants grown in different environments, Plant Cell Env. 19: 275–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Phillips J.R., Dunn M.A. and Hughes M.A., 1997, mRNA stability and localisation of the low temperature-responsive gene femily blt14, Plant Mol. Biol. 33: 1013–1023.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Plaschke J., Borner A., Xie D.X., Koebner R.D.M., Schlegel R. and Gale M.D., 1993, RFLP mapping of genes affecting plant height and growth habit in rye, Theor. Appl. Genet. 85: 1049–1054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Russel A.W., Critchley C., Robinson S.A., Franklin L.A., Seaton G.G.R., Chow W-S., Anderson J. and Osmond C.B., 1995, Photosystem II regulation and dynamics of the chloroplast D1 protein in Arabidopsis leaves during photosynthesis and photoinhibition, Plant Physiol. 107: 943–952.Google Scholar
  45. Sarhan, F. and Danyluk J., 1998, Engineering cold-tolerant crops throwing the master switch, Trends Plant Sci. 3: 289–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Snape J.W., Semikhodskii A., Fish L., Sarma R.N., Quarrie S.A., Galiba G. and Sutka J., 1997, Mapping frost tolerance loci in wheat and comparative mapping with other cereals, Acta Agr. Hung. 45: 265–270Google Scholar
  47. Stanca A.M., Romagosa I., Takeda K., Lundborg T., Terzi V., Cattivelli L., Diversity in abiotic stresses, in:Diversity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), R. von Bothmer, H. Kntipffer, T. van Hintum, K. Sato, eds., Elsievier Science, in press.Google Scholar
  48. Storlie E.W., Allan R.E. and WalkerSimmons M.K., 1998, Effect of the Vrn1-Fr1 interval on cold hardinesslevels in near-isogenic wheat lines, Crop Sci. 38: 483–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sutka J., 1981, Genetic studies of frost resistance in wheat, Theor. Appl. Genet. 59: 145–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sutton F., Ding X. and Kenefrik D.G., 1992, Group 3 Lea genes HVA1 regulation by cold acclimation and deacclimation in two barley cultivars with varying freeze resistance, Plant Physiol. 99: 338–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Vágújfelvi A., Crosatti C., Galiba G., Dubcovsky J. and Cattivelli L., 2000, Two loci on wheat chromosome 5A regulate the differential cold-dependent expression of the cor14b gene in frost-tolerant and frost-sensitive genotypes, Mol. Gen. Genet. 263: 194–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Van Zee K., Chen F.Q., Hayes P.M., Close T.J. and Chen T.H.H., 1995, Cold-specific induction of a dehydringene femily member in barley, Plant Physiol. 108, 1233–1239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Veisz O. and Sutka J., 1989, The relationships of hardening period and the expression of frost resistance in chromosome substitution lines of wheat. Euphytica 43: 41–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. White A. J., Dunn, M.A. Brown K. and Hughes M.A., 1994, Comparative analysis of genomic sequence and expression of a lipid transfer protein gene femily in winter barley, J. Exp. Bot. 45: 1885–1892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K. and Shinozaki K., 1994, A novel cis-acting element in an Arabidopsis gene is involved in responsiveness to drought, low temperature or high-salt stress, Plant Cell 6:251 –264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhu B., Choi D.W., Fenton R. and Close T.J., 2000, Expression of the barley dehydrin multigene femily and the development of freezing tolerance, Mol. Gen. Genet. 264: 145–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luigi Cattivelli
    • 1
  • Cristina Crosatti
    • 1
  • Caterina Marè
    • 1
  • Maria Grossi
    • 1
  • Anna M. Mastrangelo
    • 2
  • Elisabetta Mazzucotelli
    • 1
  • Chiara Govoni
    • 1
  • Gabor Galiba
    • 3
  • A. Michele Stanca
    • 1
  1. 1.Experimental Institute for Cereal Research Via S. ProtasoItaly
  2. 2.Experimental Institute for Cereal ResearchSection of FoggiaFoggiaItaly
  3. 3.Agricultural Institute of the Hungarian Academy of SciencesMartonvásárHungary

Personalised recommendations