Advertisement

Contraceptive Technology

  • Anne Foster-Rosales
  • Felicia H. Stewart
Part of the Issues in Women’s Health book series (WOHI)

Abstract

Contraception is not a modern concept; from ancient times to the present day, human beings have sought to control their fertility. Withdrawal, coitus interruptus for the purpose of avoiding pregnancy, is mentioned in Genesis, and historians, anthropologists, and archeolo-gists describe a wide variety of strategies, including botanical preparations and barriers used for their antifertility effects, in virtually every culture studied. Many societies noted the connection between sexual intercourse and pregnancy, and also identified menarche as a marker for the beginning of a woman’s fertility. Sperm were first described in 1677 by Leeuwen-hoek, one of the most significant discoveries made possible by his work developing microscopy (Robertson, 1990).

Keywords

Bacterial Vaginosis Contraceptive Method Unintended Pregnancy Emergency Contraception Toxic Shock Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alan Guttmacher Institute. (2000). Fulfilling the promise: Public policy and US family planning clinics. New York: Author.Google Scholar
  2. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (1998). Statement on contraceptive methods. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. CDC (2000). From the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. CDC statement on study results of product containing nonoxynol-9- JAM A, 284, 1376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ellertson, C, Webb, A., Blanchard, K., Bigrigg, A., Haskell, S., Evans, M., Ferden, S., Leadbetter, C., Spears, A., Johnstone, K., Shochet, T., & Trussell, J. Three simplifications of the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception: Results of a randomized, controlled trial in five centers (manuscript).Google Scholar
  5. Frank, E. (1999). Contraceptive use by female physicians in the United States. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 94, 666–671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Goldman, M., & Hatch, M. (2000). Women and health. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  7. Hatcher, R. A., Pluhar, E., Ziemann, M., Nelson, A., Darney P., Watt A. P., & Hatcher P. (2000). Managing contraception. Tiger, GA: Bridging the Gap.Google Scholar
  8. Hatcher, R. A., Pluhar, E., Zieman, M., Nelson, A., Darney, P., & Watt, A. P. (1999). A personal guide to managing contraception for women & men. Edition for the year 2000. Decatur, GA: Bridging the Gap Communications.Google Scholar
  9. Hatcher, R. A., Trussell, J., Stewart, F., Cates, W, Stewart, G., Guest, F., & Kowal, D. (1998). Contraceptive technology, 17th ed. New York: Ardent Media.Google Scholar
  10. Hatcher, R. A., Stewart, F., et al. (1998). Contraceptive Technology, 17th ed. New York: Ardent Media.Google Scholar
  11. Hughes, E. (1972). Obstetric-gynecologic terminology. Philadelphia: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.Google Scholar
  12. Kaunitz, A. M., Garceau, R. J., & Cromie, M. A. (1999). Comparative safety, efficacy, and cycle control of Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension) and Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 oral contraceptive (norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol triphasic). Contraception, 60, 179–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. MMWR (1999). Ten great public health achievements—United States, 1900–1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 48, 241–243.Google Scholar
  14. Newton, J. (1996). New hormonal methods of contraception. Bailliere’s Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 10, 87–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. OPRR (1983). Protection of human subjects: Code of Federal Regulations. Author.Google Scholar
  16. Peterson, H. B., Xia, Z., Wilcox, L. S., Tylor, L. R., & Trussell, J. (1999). Pregnancy after tubal sterilization with bipolar electrocoagulation. US Collaborative Review of Sterilization Working Group. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 94, 163–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Piccinino, L. J., & Mosher, W. D. (1998). Trends in contraceptive use in the United States: 1982–1995. Family Planning Perspectives, 30(1), 4–10, 46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Robertson, W H. (1990). An illustrated history of contraception. CITY, NJ: Parthenon.Google Scholar
  19. Speroff, L., & Darney, P. (1996). A clinical guide for contraception, 2nd ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  20. Spinelli, A., Talamanca, I. F., & Lauria, L. (2000). Patterns of contraceptive use in 5 European countries. European Study Group on Infertility and Subfecundity. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 1403–1408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Stewart, E, Guest, F, Stewart, G., & Hatcher, R. (1987). Understanding your body: Every woman’s guide to gynecology and health. New York: Bantam Books.Google Scholar
  22. Stewart, F., & Trussell, J. (2000). Prevention of pregnancy resulting from rape: A neglected preventive health measure. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 19, 228–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Trussell, J., Koenig, J., Stewart, F., & Darroch, J. E. (1997). Medical care cost savings from adolescent contraceptive use. Family Planning Perspectives, 29, 248–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Trussell, J., Leveque, J. A., Koenig, J. D., London, R., Borden, S., Henneberry, J., La Guardia, K. D., Stewart, F., Wilson, T. G., & Wysocki, S. (1995). The economic value of contraception: A comparison of 15 methods. American Journal of Public Health, 85, 494–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Westhoff, C, & Davis, A. (2000). Tubal sterilization focus on the U.S. experience. Fertility and Sterility, 73(5), 913–922.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne Foster-Rosales
    • 1
  • Felicia H. Stewart
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations