Infertility, ICSI, and the Epididymis
It is estimated that about 30 to 40% of couples seeking fertility treatments are diagnosed with male factor infertility. These males have a range of gonadal dysfunctions that includes azoospermia (i.e., no sperm in the ejaculate), oligozoospermia (i.e., sperm count less than 20 million/ml), asthenozoospermia (i.e., sperm motility less than 50%) and teratozoospermia (i.e., sperm with normal morphology less than 30%). The group of patients with azoospermia represents about 25% of the total and, of these, about 30% have an obstructive process (obstructive azoospermia) while the remaining have a primary testicular failure (non-obstructive azoospermia). In the obstructive azoospermia group, about 25% have congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD), while the incidence among all infertile males is about 2% (approximately 16,000 males are affected by CBAVD in USA) (Patrizio and Leonard, 2000). Other obstructive conditions are represented by vasectomy, failed vasectomy reversal operations, post-inflammatory scarring of the epididymis, inoperable ejaculatory ducts blockage or distal vasal obstructions and functional obstructions seen in patients after extensive retroperitoneal lymph-node dissections.
KeywordsGlycerol Filtration Syringe Infertility Carnitine
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