Intervening through the Social Welfare System

A Proposed Contingency Management Program with Implications for Workfare Planning
  • Sonja Frison
  • Jesse B. Milby


This chapter outlines one area of the U.S. Social Welfare System and discusses the implications of a contingency management program for Welfare to Work (Workfare) participants with substance abuse problems. This type of programming is important for at least two reasons. One, although the prevalence of substance abuse within this system varies, there is a recognition that screening and treatment are often indicated but are not adequately addressed. Also, substance abuse impacts on the individual’s ability to obtain and sustain employment, thus creating challenges to the system if the substance abuse is not treated.


Substance Abuse Substance Abuse Treatment Welfare Reform Welfare Recipient Substance Abuse Problem 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barker, R. L. (1995). Social Welfare. In The Social Work Dictionary. Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers.Google Scholar
  2. Bixby, A. K. (1999). Public Social Welfare Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1995. Social Security Bulletin, 62, 86–94.Google Scholar
  3. Brown, A. (2001). Beyond work first: How to help hard-to employ individuals get jobs and succeed in the workforce. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.Google Scholar
  4. Delva, J., Neumark, Y., Furr, C, and Anthony, C. (2000). Drug use among welfare recipients in the United States. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 26, 335–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). Family poverty, welfare reform, and child development. Child Development, 71, 188–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Duncan, R. D., Saunders, B. E., Kilpatrick, D. G., Hanson, R. F., & Resnick, H. S. (1996). Childhood physical assault as a risk factor for PTSD, depression, and substance abuse: findings from a national survey. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 66, 437–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Foa, E. (1997). Trauma and women: Course, predictors, and treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 58, 25–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Gainey, R. R., Wells, E. A., Hawkins, J. D., & Catalano, R. F. (1993) Predicting treatment retention among cocaine users. International Journal of Addiction, 28, 487–505.Google Scholar
  9. Grant, B. E, & Dawson, D. A. (1996). Alcohol and drug use, abuse and dependence among welfare recipients. American Journal of Public Health, 86, 1450–1454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Higgins, S. T. (1997). The influence of alternative reinforcers on cocaine use and abuse: a brief review. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 57, 419–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Higgins, S. T., Budney, A. J., Bickel, W. K., Foerg, F. E,. Donham, R., & Badger, G. J. (1994). Incentives improve outcome in outpatient behavioral treatment of cocaine dependence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 568–576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kramer, F. (2000). Social purpose businesses: Supported work and training settings for hard-to -place welfare recipients. Welfare Information Network Design Brief, 1, 1–18.Google Scholar
  13. Letsbe, M. A. (1997). Social welfare in transition in South Africa: Structures and processes. International Social Work, 40, 75–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. London, L. (1999). The dop system, alcohol abuse, and social capital amongst farm workers in South Africa: A public health challenge. Social Science and Medicine, 48, 1407–1414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Metsch, L. R., McCoy, C. B., Miller, M., McAnany, H., & Pereyra, M. (1999). Moving substance abusing women from welfare to work. Journal of Public Health Policy, 20, 36–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McLellan, A. T., Kushner, H., Metzger, D., Peters, R., Smith, I., Grissom, G., Pettinati, H., & Argeriou, M. (1992). The fifth edition of the addiction severity index. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 9, 199–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Milby, J. B., Schumacher, J. E., Raczynski, J. M., Caldwell, E., Engle, M., Michael, M., & Carr, J. (1996). Sufficient conditions for effective treatment of substance abusing homeless. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 43, 39–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Milby, J. B., Schumacher, J. E., McNamara, C, Wallace, D., Usdan, S., McGill, T., & Michael, M. (2000). Initiating abstinence in cocaine abusing dually diagnosed homeless persons. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 60, 55–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (1991). Motivational Interviewing. NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  20. Olson, K., & Pavetti, L. (1997, February). Personal and family challenges to the successful transition from welfare to work. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  21. Pavetti, L. (1997). New welfare reform: One size fits all? Forum for Applied Besearch and Public Policy, 12, 18–21.Google Scholar
  22. Pavetti, L., & Wemmerus, N. (1999). From a welfare check to a paycheck: Creating a new social contract. Journal of Labor Besearch, 20, 517–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Schmidt, L. A., & McCarty, D. (2000). Welfare reform and the changing landscape of substance abuse set-vices for low income women. Alcoholism-Clinical and Experimental Besearch, 24, 1298–1311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shapiro, R. Y., & Young, J. T. (1989). Public opinion and the welfare state: The United States in comparative perspective. Political Science Quarterly, 104, 59–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sisco, C. B., & Pearson, C. L. (1994). Prevalence of alcoholism and drug abuse among female AFDC recipients. Health and Social Work, 19, 75–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Silove, D., Steel, Z., McGorry, P., and Drobry, J. (1999). Problems Tamil asylum seekers encounter in accessing health and welfare services in Australia. Social Science and Medicine, 49, 951–956.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Silverman, K., Higgins, S. T., Brooner, R. K., Montoya, I. D., Cone, E. J., Schuster, C. R., & Preston, K. L. (1996). Sustained cocaine abstinence in methadone maintenance patients through voucher-based reinforcement therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 409–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Strawn, J. (1997). Substance abuse and welfare reform policy. Welfare Information Network Issue Notes, 1, 1–6.Google Scholar
  29. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2001). Summary of findings from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 01-3549). Rockville, MD: SAMHSA.Google Scholar
  30. Teklu, T., & Asefe, S. (1999). Who participates in the labor intensive public works in Sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from rural Botswana and Kenya. World Development, 27, 431–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Thompson, B. (1996, December). Global binge: A report on alcohol abuse worldwide. World Vision’s Today. Retrieved from Scholar
  32. Toro, P., Bellavia, C., Daeschler, C, & Owens, B. (1995). Distinguishing homelessness from poverty: A comparative study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 280–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Weiner, E. (1998). Assessing the political and economic reform of the post-socialist era: The case of Czech and Slovack women. East European Quarterly, 31, 473–502.Google Scholar
  34. Weisner, C, & Schmidt, L. (1993). Alcohol and drug problems among diverse health and social service populations. American Journal of Public Health, 83, 824–829.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Weisner, C, & Schmidt, L. (1995). Expanding the frame of health services research in the drug abuse field. Health Services Research, 30, 707–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Welfare Information Network. (2001). State plan information report: Hard to serve provisions .Retrieved from Scholar
  37. Wickizer, T. M., Campbell, K., Krupski, A., & Stark, K. (2000). Employment outcomes among AFDC recipients treated for substance abuse in Washington State. Milbank Quarterly, 78, 585–608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Woolis, D. D. (1998). Family works: Substance abuse treatment and welfare reform. Public Welfare, 56, 24–31.Google Scholar
  39. World Health Organization. (1999). Global status report on alcohol. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sonja Frison
    • 1
  • Jesse B. Milby
    • 2
  1. 1.Behavioral Medicine Unit/Division of Preventive MedicineUniversity of AlabamaBirminghamUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of AlabamaBirminghamUSA

Personalised recommendations