Dietary Induction of Phase II Enzymes: A Promising Strategy for Protection Against DNA-Reactive Intermediates in Man?
Over the last decades, strong efforts have been made to identify chemoprotective agents in in vitro models with mammalian cells and in laboratory rodents and numerous molecular studies have been carried out to elucidate the mechanisms of prevention of DNA-damage and tumour formation by dietary constituents. Among the most important protective mechanisms identified are inhibition of activating-and induction of deactivating enzymes. Since humans differ substantially in their drug metabolism from laboratory rodents, it is unclear if animal data on chemoprotective agents can be extrapolated to man. The present article gives a brief overview on the impact of dietary factors on the activity and induction of important phase II enzymes in humans.
KeywordsEpoxide Hydrolase Laboratory Rodent Vegetable Diet Dietary Constituent Garden Cress
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bell, D. A., Thompson, C. L., Taylor J., Miller, C. R, Perera, Hsieh, F. L. L., and Lucier, G. W., 1992,Genetic monitoring of human polymorphic cancer susceptibility genes by polymerase chain reaction: application toglutathione transferase µ, Env Health Perspect. 98: 113.Google Scholar
- Helzlsouer, K.J., Selmin, O., Huang, H-Y., Strickland, P. T., Hoffman, S., Alberg, A.J., Watson, G.W., Comstock, P., and Bell, D., 1998 Association between glutathione -S-transferase, Ml, Pl, and Tl genetic polymorphisms and development of breast cancer, J Natl Cancer Inst, 90, 7: 512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sato, K., Kitahare, A., Yin, Z., Waragi, F., Nishimura, K., Hatayama, I., Ebina, T., Yamazaki, T., Tsuda, H., and Ito, N., 1984, Induction by butylated hydroxianisole of specific molecular forms of glutathione S-transferase and UDP-glucuronosyl-transférase and inhibition of development of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive foci in rat liver, Carcinogenesis, 5:473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sreerama, L., Hedge, M. W., and Sladek, N. E., 1995 Identification of a class 3 aldehyde dehydrogenase in human saliva and increased levels of this enzyme, glutathione S-transferases, and DT-diaphorase in the saliva of subjects who continually ingest large quantities of coffee or broccoli, Clin Cancer Res. 1: 1153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Steinkellner, H., Hietsch, G., Sreerama, L., Haidinger, G., Gsur, A., Kundi, M. and Knasmüller, S., 2000, Induction of glutathione S-transferases in humans by vegetable diets. in: Food and Cancer Prevention IV: Chemical and Biological Aspects. K.W. Waldron, I.T. Johnson and G. R. Fenwick. ed., The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge.Google Scholar
- Wattenberg, L. W., 1983 Inhibition of neoplasia by minor dietary constituents, Cancer Res. 43: 2448.Google Scholar
- Zhang, Y., and Talalay, P., 1994, Anticarcinogenic activities of organic isothiocyanates: Chemistry and mechanisms, Cancer Res. 54: 1976.Google Scholar