Social and Moral Knowing

  • Ronald R. Irwin
Part of the The Plenum Series in Adult Development and Aging book series (SSAD)


In 1969, Kramer and Kohlberg reported some anomalous results regarding research on stages of moral development. Young people who had been scored as at stage four, a very high and relatively rare finding, were found to be regressing back to stage two. According to the tenets of stage theory, this should not be happening. Young people, who had been reasoning in terms of maintaining the social order and taking the point of view of rules and roles, were regressing back to reasoning from self-interest and instrumental exchange. Many of these young people were on the campus of Berkeley in the 1960s.


Good Life Moral Development Real Life Experience Conventional Stage Structural Stage Model 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronald R. Irwin
    • 1
  1. 1.BrockvilleCanada

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