Effect Of Processing on Ochratoxin A (OTA) Content of Coffee

  • R. Viani
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 504)


Coffee production can be roughly separated into three main steps 1) cherry processing to green coffee beans, 2) storage and transportation of green coffee to the place of consumption, and 3) green coffee processing to roasted and ground coffee and soluble coffee. The mold species which are known to produce ochratoxin A (OTA) in coffee have been identified asAspergillus ochraceus A. carbonarius and occasionally,A. niger. The length of time spent at a water activity > 0.80 at any moment until roasting defines the risk of mold growth and OTA production. However, the specific moment and locus of contamination have not yet been clearly identified. Since coffee husks are a significant source of OTA contamination, cleaning and grading of green coffee are effective methods for reducing OTA levels in coffee. During the process of converting green coffee to roasted and soluble coffees, up to 90% reduction in OTA levels can occur.


Coffee Berry Green Coffee Critical Control Point Coffee Husk Green Coffee Bean 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anonymous, undatedA guide to good harvesting handling and processing of natural Uganda coffeeUCDA, Kampala.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous, 1997, Special workshop on the enhancement of coffee quality by reduction of mold growthProc. 17 4 ’ Conference Association Scientique Internationale du Café367.Google Scholar
  3. Anonymous, 1998, Food quality and safety systems. A training manual on food hygiene and the hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) system, FAO, Rome.Google Scholar
  4. Anonymous, 1999, 2d Workshop on Enhancement of Coffee Quality by Reduction of Mould GrowthProc. 18 i5 Conference Association Scientifique Internationale du Café, 219.Google Scholar
  5. Blanc, M., Pittet, A., Muñoz-Box, R., and Viani, R., 1998, Behavior of ochratoxin A during green coffee roasting and soluble coffee manufacturingJ. Agric. Food Chem.46:673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blanc, M., 2000, Personal communication.Google Scholar
  7. Bucheli, P., Kanchanomai, C., Meyer, I., and Pittet, A., 2000, Development of ochratoxin A during robusta (Coffea canephora)- coffee cherry dryingJ. Agric. Food Chem.40:1358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bucheli, P., Meyer, I., Pittet, A., Vuataz, G., and Viani, R., 1998, Industrial storage of green Robusta coffee under tropical conditions and its impact on raw material quality and ochratoxin A contentJ. Agric. Food Chem.46:4507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Corte dos Santos, A., Hahn, D., Cahagnier, B., Drapron, R., Guilbot, A., Lefebvre, J., Multon, J.L., Poisson, J., and Trentesaux, E., 1971, Etude de l’évolution de plusieurs caractéristiques d’un café arabica au cours d’un stockage expérimental effectué à cinq humidités relatives différentesProc. S ty Conference Association Scientifique Internationale du Café ASIC, 304.Google Scholar
  10. Frank, J.M., 1998, Appendix 4 — Main results of the pilot project and follow-up actions, inProject Proposal to the Common Fund for Commodities, International Coffee Organization, London.Google Scholar
  11. Frank, J.M., 1999, Mycotoxin prevention and decontaminationThird Joint FAO/WHO/UNEP International Conference on Mycotoxins, Tunis, March 3–6, 1999.Google Scholar
  12. Frank, J.M., 2000, Development of critical control points for preventing ochratoxin A (OTA) accumulation in coffee10 t5 International IUPAC Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins, Guaruja (Brazil)May 21-25,2000. Google Scholar
  13. Frank, J.M., Personal communication.Google Scholar
  14. Heenan, C.N., Shaw, K.J., and Pitt, J.I., 1998, Ochratoxin A production byA. carbonariusandA. nigerisolates and detection using coconut cream agar.J Food Mycol. 1:67. Google Scholar
  15. Joosten, H.M.L.J., Goetz, J., Pittet, A., Schellenberg, M., and Bucheli, P., 2001, Production of ochratoxin A byAspergillus carbonariusin coffee,Int. J. Food Microbiology, 65:39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Levi, C.P., Trenk, H.L. and Yeransian, J.A., 1975. Investigations of mycotoxins relative to coffeeProc. 7 t5 Conference Association Scientifique Internationale du Café, 287.Google Scholar
  17. Multon, J.L., Poisson, J., Cahagnier, B., Hahn, D., Barel, M., and Corte dos Santos, A., 1974, Evolution de plusieurs caractéristiques d’un café arabica au cours d’un stockage expérimental effectué à cinq humidités relatives et quatre températures différentesCafé Cacao Thé18:121.Google Scholar
  18. Pittet, A., Tomare, D., Huggett, A., and Viani, R., 1996, Liquid chromatographic determination of ochratoxin A in pure and adulterated soluble coffee using an immunoaffinity column cleanup procedureJ. Agric. Food Chem.44:3564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Poisson, J., Cahagnier, B., Multon, J.L., Hahn, D., and Corte dos Santos, A., 1975, La microflore du café. Méthode de dénombrement et influence sur les qualities organoleptiquesProc. 7 t5 Conference Association Scientifique Internationale du Café, 311.Google Scholar
  20. Studer-Rohr, I., Dietrich, D.R., Schlaffer, J., and Schlaffer, C., 1995, The occurrence of ochratoxin A in coffeeFood Chem. Toxicol.33:341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tanawaki, M.H., Pitt, J.I., Urgano, G.R., Teixeira, A.A., and Leitäo, M.F.F., 1999, Fungi producing ochratoxin A in coffeeProc. 18 t5 Conference Association Scientifique Internationale du Café, 239. Taniwaki, M.H. 2000. Personal communication.Google Scholar
  22. Tsubouchi, H., Terada, H., Yamamoto, K., Hisada, K., and Sakabe, Y., 1988, Ochratoxin A found in commercial roast coffeeJ Agric. Food Chem.36:540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. van der Stegen, G., Jörissen, U., Pittet, A., Saccon, M., Steiner, W., Vincenzi, M., Winkler, M., Zapp, J., and Schlaffer, C., 1997, Screening of European coffees final products for occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA)Food Addit. Contam.14:211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Vega, F.E., Mercadier, G., and Dowd, P.F., 1999, Fungi associated with the coffee berry borerHypothenernus hamei(Ferrari) (Coleopter:Scolytidae),Proc. 18 ts Conference Association Scientifique Inte rn ationale du Café229.Google Scholar
  25. Viani, R., 2000, Coffee, inUllmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial ChemistryWiley-VCH, Weinheim (Germany) (available only as CD-ROM).Google Scholar
  26. Walker, R., 1997, Quality and safety of coffeeProc. 17 t5 Conference Association Scientifique Internationale du Café, 51.Google Scholar
  27. WHO Committee on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, 2000, NotificationG/SPS/EEC/104of 27 November 2000.Google Scholar
  28. Zepnik, H., Pähler, A., Schauer, U., and Dekant, W., 1999, Biotransformation and lack of mutaenicity of ochratoxin A using combinations of mammalian biotransformation enzymesProc. 18’ Conference Association Scientifique Internationale du Café, 193.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Viani
    • 1
  1. 1.Association Scientifique Internationale du Café (ASIC)FAO ConsultantCorseauxSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations