Identity is the core of human existence. This existential reality manifests itself in the human as a species-specific evolutionary focal point. It appears that no other earthly species abstractly contemplates its very nature. This is as important for a discussion of identity in general as it is for the concept of gender identity.
- Sexual Dimorphism
- Gender Identity
- Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
- Ambiguous Genitalia
- Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
Of all relations the most universal is tha of identity. David Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature, 1739.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
American Psychiatric Association. DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,American Psychiatric Association Press, Washington, pp. 538, 1994.
Baskin LS, Erol A, Li YW, Cunha GR. Anatomical studies of hypospadias. J Urol, 160:1108–1115, 1998.
Berenbaum SA. Early androgen effects on aggression in children and adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Psychoneuroendocrinology 22:505–515, 1997.
Berenbaum SA. Effects of early androgens on sex-typed activities and interests in adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Horm Behav 35:102–110, 1999.
Bradley SJ, Oliver GD, Chemick AB, Zucker KJ. Experiment of nurture: ablatio penis at 2 months, sex reassignment at 7 months, and a psychosexual follow-up in young adulthood. Pediatrics 102:e9, 1998. Coffey DS. Self-organization, complexity and chaos: The new biology for medicine. Nature Med 4:882–885, 1988.
Cook D, Giacomini M. The trials and tribulations of clinical practice guidelines. JAMA 281(20):1950–1951, 1999.
Dennett DC. Darwin’s Dangerous Idea–Evolution and the Meanings of Life, Simon & Schuster, New York, pp. 23–28, pp. 68–84, 1996.
Diamond M, Sigmundson HK. Sex reassignment at birth: long-term review and clinical implications. Arch Sex Behav 151:298, 1997.
DiPietro JA. Fetal neurobehavioral development. Child Dev 67:2553–2567, 1996.
Dreger AD. “Ambiguous sex” – or ambivalent medicine? Ethical issues in the treatment of intersexuality. Hastings Center Report, 28:24, 1998.
Elliott C. Why can’t we go on as three? Hastings Center Report, 28:36–39, 1998.
Fitch RH, Denenberg VH. A role for ovarian hormones in sexual differentiation of the brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 21:311–352, 1998.
Giedd JN, Castellanos FX, Rajapakse JC, Vaituzis AC, Rapoport JL. Sexual dimorphism of the developing human brain. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 21:1185–1201, 1997.
Glassberg Kl. The intersex infant: early gender assignment and surgical reconstruction. J Ped Adol Gynecol, 11:151–154, 1998.
Gorski RA. Sexual dimorphisms of the brain. JAnim Sci,61:38, 1985.
Gould SJ. The evolution of life on earth. Sci Amer, 271:84–91, 1994.
Hagq CM, Donahoe PK. Regulation of sexual dimorphism and mammals. Physiol Rev 78:1–33, 1998.
Hines M. Androgen and the development of human sex-typical behavior: Rough-and-tumble play and sex of preferred playmates in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Child Dev 65:1042–1053, 1994.
Imperato-McGinley J, Peterson RE, Gautier T, Sturla E. Androgen and evolution of male-gender identity among male pseudohermaphrodites with 5 -reductase deficiency. New Engl J Med 300:1233, 1979.
Jusczyk PW. The Discovery of Spoken Language, MIT Press, Boston, 1997.
Kessler Si. The medical construction of gender: Case management of intersexed infants. J Women in Culture and Society,16:3–26, 1990.
Lieberman P. Eve Spoke: Human Language and Human Evolution, Norton Press, New York, 1999.
McFadden D. Sex differences in the auditory system. Dev Neuropsych,14:261–298, 1998.
Mental Disorders.American Psychiatric Association Press, Washington, 538, 1994.
Meyer-Bahlburg HFL, Sandberg DE, Yager TJ, Dolczal CL, Ehrhardt AA. Questionnaire scales for the assessment of atypical gender development in girls and boys. J Psychology and Human Sexuality 6:19–39, 1994.
Migeon CJ, Wisniewski AB. Sexual differentiation: From genes to gender. Horm Res, 50:245–251, 1998.
Money J, Devore H, Norman BF: Gender identity and gender transposition: Longitudinal outcome study of 32 male hermaphrodites assigned as girls. J Sex and Marital Ther 12:165–181, 1986.
Money J. Ablatio Penis: Normal male infant sex-reassigned as a girl. Arch Sex Behav 4:65–71, 1975.
Money L, Hampson JG, Hampson JL. Hermaphroditism: recommendations concerning assignment of sex, change of sex and psychological management. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 97:284, 1955.
Ochoa B. Trauma of the external genitalia in children: amputation of the penis and emasculation. J Urol 160:1116–1119, 1998.
Potts R. Humanity’s Descent, The Consequences of Ecological Instability, William Morrow and Co., New York, pp. 12–15, pp. 225–227, 1996.
Raisman G, Field PM. Sexual dimorphism in the preoptic area of the rat. Science 173:731–733, 1971.
Reiner WG. Case study: sex reassignment in a teenage girl. J Amer Read Child Adol Psychiatry 35:799–803, 1996.
Reiner WG. Sex-assignment in the newborn with ambiguous genitalia–a review of the literature. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, August, 1999.
Reiner WG. To be male or female — that is the question. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 151:224–225, 298–304, 1997.
Reiner WG. Unpublished data, available on request.
Roberts JM. History of the World. Penguin Books, London, pp. 5–26, pp. 34–38. 1997.
Schobur JM. Early feminizing genitoplasty or watchful waiting. J Ped Adol Gynec 11:154–156, 1998.
Schobur JM. Feminizing genitoplasty for intersex, in: Pediatric Surgery and Urology: Long Term Outcomes. MD Stringer, KT Oldham, PDE Mouriquand, ER Howards, eds., W.B. Saunders, London, pp. 549–558, 1998.
Shaneyfelt TM, Mayo-Smith MF, Rothwangl J. Are guidelines following guidelines? The methodological quality of clinical practice guidelines in the peer-reviewed medical literature. JAMA, 281:1900–1905, 1999.
Slijper FM, Drop SL, Molenaar JC, de Muinck Keizer-Schrama SM. Long-term Psychological evaluation of intersex children. Arch Sex Behav 27:125–144, 1998.
Swaab DF, Gooren U, Hoffman MA. Brain research, gender and sexual orientation. J Homosex 28:283–301, 1995.
Wilson B, Reiner WG. Management of intersex: A shifting paradigm. J Clin Ethics 9:360–369, 1998.
Woodhouse CR. Sexual function in boys born with exstrophy, myelomeningocele, and micropenis. Urology 52:3–11, 1998.
Editors and Affiliations
Rights and permissions
© 2002 Springer Science+Business Media New York
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Reiner, W.G. (2002). Gender Identity and Sex Assignment: A Reappraisal for the 21st Century. In: Zderic, S.A., Canning, D.A., Carr, M.C., Snyder, H.M. (eds) Pediatric Gender Assignment. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol 511. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-0621-8_11
Publisher Name: Springer, Boston, MA
Print ISBN: 978-1-4613-5162-7
Online ISBN: 978-1-4615-0621-8
eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive