Modelling Roles in Business Systems Using Role Objects

  • Ying Liang


Modelling techniques of information systems development have been created regarding data, information and knowledge representation. Data modelling techniques is concerned with data representation (Dewitz, 1996). Object modelling techniques pay attention to information representation (Sommerville, 1996). Now modelling techniques are moving towards knowledge representation in order to distinguish between information and knowledge in information systems. For example, Schoderbek et al., (1990) suggested that information refers to inferentially intended material evaluated for a particular problem, for a specified individual, at a specific time, and for achieving a definite goal. Pressman (2000, p892) said “data is raw information-collections of facts that must be processed to be meaningful. Information is derived by associating facts within a given context. Knowledge associates information obtained in one context with other information obtained in a different context.” If knowledge is regarded as different interpretations of the information, we need a specific approach to abstract and represent the knowledge in a business system. Currently many approaches can only represent information in business systems. For example, object-oriented modelling approaches use objects to represent information. However few approaches can represent the knowledge. In order to overcome the lack, I have created an approach that aims to use the role concept for abstracting knowledge from a business system and uses role objects to represent the knowledge. This paper will present the approach in details.


Multiple Role Class Diagram Business System Role Responsibility Role Concept 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adeli, H. (1990). Knowledge Engineering, Vol.1 (Fundamentals), McGraw-Hill, London.Google Scholar
  2. Booch, G., Rumbaugh, J. and Jacobson, I. (1999). The Unified Modelling Language User Guide,Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  3. Dewitz, S.D. (1996). System Analysis and Design and the Transition to Objects, McGraw-Hill,London.Google Scholar
  4. Downie, R.S. (1971). Roles and Values: an introduction to social ethics, Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  5. Gottlob, G. (1996). “Extending Object-Oriented Systems with Roles,” ACM Transactions on Information Systems. l4(3):268–296.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Liang, Y. (2001). “Actor-Led Object Modelling for Requirements and Systems Analysis,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Object-Oriented Information Systems.Springer, London.Google Scholar
  7. Martin, J. and Odell, J.J. (1992). Object-oriented Analysis and Design, Prentice Hall, Englewood Ciffs, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  8. Oestereich, B. (1997). Developing Software with UML-Object-Oriented Analysis and Design in Practice, Addison-Wesley, Harlow, England.Google Scholar
  9. Papazoglou, M.P. (1991). “A Methodology for representing multifaced objects,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Application, ACM, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Pernici, B. (1990). “Objects with Roles”, in Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Office Information Systems, ACM, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Pressman, R.S. (2000). Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach (5th edition), McGraw Hill, London.Google Scholar
  12. Ruddock, R. (1969). Roles and Relationships, Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., London.Google Scholar
  13. Schank, R.C., and Abelson, R.P. (1977). Scripts, Plans, and Understanding: An Inquiry into Human Knowledge Structures, Hillsdale, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  14. Schoderbek, C.G., Schoderbek, P.P., and Kefalas, A.G. (1990). Management Systems: Conceptual Considerations (4th edition), Business Publication, Dallas.Google Scholar
  15. Sommerville, I. (1996). Software Engineering (5th edition), Addison-Wesley, Wokingham.Google Scholar
  16. Taylor, D.A. (1995). Business Engineering with Object Technology, Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  17. Wirfs-Block, R., Wilkerson, B., and Wiener, L. (1990). Designing Object-Oriented Software,Prentice Hall, Englewood Ciffs, New Jersey.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ying Liang
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Computing and Information Systems School of Information and Communication TechnologyUniversity of PaisleyPaisleyUK

Personalised recommendations