Participative Action Research (PAR) for Rural Community Development in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

  • Hasnawaty Habibie
  • N. Sriskandarajah
  • R. G. Packham


In Indonesia, community development is one of the major strategies for improving the conditions of smallholder farmers in rural areas. Such programs are usually delivered to farmers through extension services using a Transfer of Technology (TOT) approach - a technical orientation primarily concerned with agricultural production issues, rather than being concerned with livelihood issues such as social equity or ecological sustainability (Sriskandarajah et al., 1993; Cornwall et al., 1994). This approach has been challenged as being non-participatory and top-down in its implementation (King, 2000).


Participative Action Research Napier Grass Extension Officer Critical System Thinking Livestock Extension 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hasnawaty Habibie
    • 1
  • N. Sriskandarajah
    • 1
  • R. G. Packham
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Systemic DevelopmentUniversity of Western SydneyPenrith South DCAustralia

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