Employee Withdrawal Behavior

Role of the Performance Management Process
  • Rabindra N. Kanungo
  • Manuel Mendonca
Part of the Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Theory, Research, and Practice book series (IOPS)


In today’s turbulent environment brought about by globalization and continuing technological change, innovation is a critical ingredient for a successful organization. Innovation means more than new technology and products. It means that employees use their knowledge, abilities, and experience to respond creatively to the constantly changing demands of the environment. It includes “ideas for reorganizing, cutting costs, putting in new budgeting systems, improving communication, or assembling products in teams” (Kanter, 1983:20). This view of innovation recognizes that all employees have the potential to be innovative.


Performance Management Organizational Commitment Affective Commitment Social Exchange Theory Normative Commitment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rabindra N. Kanungo
    • 1
  • Manuel Mendonca
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of ManagementMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

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