Advertisement

Employee Withdrawal Behavior

Role of the Performance Management Process
  • Rabindra N. Kanungo
  • Manuel Mendonca
Part of the Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Theory, Research, and Practice book series (IOPS)

Abstract

In today’s turbulent environment brought about by globalization and continuing technological change, innovation is a critical ingredient for a successful organization. Innovation means more than new technology and products. It means that employees use their knowledge, abilities, and experience to respond creatively to the constantly changing demands of the environment. It includes “ideas for reorganizing, cutting costs, putting in new budgeting systems, improving communication, or assembling products in teams” (Kanter, 1983:20). This view of innovation recognizes that all employees have the potential to be innovative.

Keywords

Performance Management Organizational Commitment Affective Commitment Social Exchange Theory Normative Commitment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abramson, L. Y., Garber, J., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1980). Learned helplessness in humans: An attributional analysis. In J. Garber & M. E. P. Seligman (Eds.), Human helplessness: Theory and applications (pp. 3–34). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, J. S. (1965). Injustice in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 267–299). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social-cognitive view. Englewood, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  5. Baron, J. N., & Kreps, D. M. (1999). Strategic human resources: Frameworks for general managers. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  6. Bishop, J. W., & Scott, K. D. (1997, February). How commitment affects team performance. HRMagazine, pp. 107–111.Google Scholar
  7. Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  8. Blauner, R. (1964). Alienation and freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  9. Block, P. (1987). The empowered manager. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  10. Bloom, M. (1999). The performance effects of pay dispersion on individuals and organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 42, 25–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown, S. P. (1996). A meta-analysis and review of organizational research on job involvement. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 235–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burke, W. (1986). Leadership as empowering others. In S. Srivastra (Ed.), Executive power (pp. 51–77). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  13. Collins, J., & Porras, J. (1997). Built to last. New York: Harper Business.Google Scholar
  14. Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1988a). The empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice. The Academy of Management Review, 13(3), 471–482.Google Scholar
  15. Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1998b). Charismatic leadership in organizations. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  16. Deci, E. L. (1975). Intrinsic motivation. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dessler, G. (1999). How to earn your employees’ commitment. Academy of Management Executive, 13, 58–67.Google Scholar
  18. Emerson, R. M. (1962). Power-dependence relations. American Sociological Review, 27, 31–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fein, M. (1974). Job enrichment: A re-evaluation. Sloan Management Review, 15, 69–88.Google Scholar
  20. George, J. M, & Brief, A. P. (1992). Feeling good-doing good: A Conceptual analysis of the mood at work-organizational spontaneity relationship. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 310–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hackett, R. D., & Guion, R. M. (1985). A reevaluation of the absenteeism-job satisfaction relationship. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 35, 340–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Herzberg, F. (1966). Work and the nature of man. Cleveland: World.Google Scholar
  23. Homans, A. (1974). Social behavior: Its elementary forms. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  24. Hulin, C. (1991). Adaptation, persistence, and commitment in organizations. In M. D. Dunnette & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 445–505). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  25. James, J. (1951). An experimental study of tensions in work behavior. University of California Publications in Culture and Society, 2(4), 203–242.Google Scholar
  26. Johns, G. (1987) Understanding and managing absence from work. In S. L. Dolan & R. S. Schuler (Eds.), Readings in Canadian personnel and human resource management (pp. 324–335). St. Paul, MN: West.Google Scholar
  27. Kanter, R. M. (1972). Commitment and community: Communes and utopias in sociological perspective. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Kanter, R. M. (1979). Power failure in management circuits. Harvard Business Review, July-August, 65–75.Google Scholar
  29. Kanter, R. N. (1983). The change masters. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  30. Kanungo, R. N. (1982). Work alienation. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  31. Kanungo, R. N., & Mendonca, M. (1988). Evaluating employee compensation. California Management Review, 31, 23–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kanungo, R. N., & Mendonca, M. (1996). Ethical dimensions of leadership. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  33. Kanungo, R. N., & Mendonca, M. (1997). Compensation: Effective reward management (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  34. Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1978). The social psychology of organizations. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  35. Latane, B., Williams, K, & Harkins, S. (1979). Many hands make light the work: The causes and consequences of social loafing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 189–202.Google Scholar
  36. Lawler, E. E. (1977). Reward systems. In J. R. Hackman & J. L. Shuttle (Eds.), Improving life at work (pp. 163–226). Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear.Google Scholar
  37. Lawler, E. E., Mohrman, A. M., & Resnick, S. M. (1984). Performance appraisal revisited. Organizational Dynamics, Summer, 20–35.Google Scholar
  38. Likert, R. (1961). New patterns of management. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  39. Likert, R. (1967). The human organization. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  40. Locke, E. A., & Bryan, J. F. (1968). Goal-setting as a determinant of the effect of knowledge of score on performance. American Journal of Psychology, 81, 398–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1984). Goal-setting: A motivational technique that works! Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  42. Locke, E. A., Shaw, K. N., Saari, L. M., & Latham, G. P. (1981). Goal-setting and task performance: 1969–1980. Psychological Bulletin, 90, 125–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Luthans, F., & Reif, W. E. (1972). Does job enrichment really pay off? California Management Review, 15, 30–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Luthans, F., & Reif, W. E. (1973). Job enrichment: Long on theory, short on practice. Organizational Dynamics, 3, 30–43.Google Scholar
  45. Luthans, F., & Stajkovic, A. D. (1999). Reinforce for performance: The need to go beyond pay and even rewards. Academy of Management Executive, 13, 49–57.Google Scholar
  46. McClelland, D. C. (1975). Power: The inner experience. New York: Irvington Press.Google Scholar
  47. MacGregor, A. (2000, February 4). Surfed ‘n’ turfed: on-job Net abuse: Productivity, legal issues key concerns. The Montreal Gazette, pp. A1–A2.Google Scholar
  48. McGregor, D. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  49. March, J. G., & Simon, H. A. (1958). Organizations. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  50. Marx, K. (1932). Economic and philosophical manuscripts. In Marx-Engels Gesamtansgabe (Vol. 3). Berlin: Marx-Engels Institute.Google Scholar
  51. Mathieu, J. E., & Zajac, D. M. (1990). A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 171–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Menon, S. T. (1999). Psychological empowerment: Definition, measurement, and validation. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 31, 161–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1997). Commitment in the workplace: Theory, research, and application. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  54. Mobley, W. H. (1977). Intermediate linkages in the relationship between job satisfaction and employee turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 237–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mowday, R. T., Porter, L. W., & Steers, R. M. (1982). Employee-organization linkages: Google Scholar
  56.  The psychology of commitment, absenteeism, and turnover. New York: AcademicGoogle Scholar
  57. Nadler, D. (1980). Concepts for the management of organizational change. New York: Organizational Research & Consulting.Google Scholar
  58. Nicholson, N., & Johns, G. (1985) The absence culture and the psychological contract—Who’s in control of absence? Academy of Management Review, 10, 397–407.Google Scholar
  59. Nicholson, N., & Payne, R. (1987). Absence from work: Explanations and attributions. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 36, 121–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pinsonneault, A., & Boisvert, M. (2001). The impacts of telework and telecommuting on organizations and workers: What do we know. In N. Johnson (Ed.), Telecommuting and virtual office: Issues and opportunities (pp. 163–185). Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing.Google Scholar
  61. Reichers, A. E. (1985). A review and reconceptualization of organizational commitment. Academy of Management Review, 10, 465–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Roethlisberger, F. J., & Dickson, W. J. (1939). Management and the worker. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Rothbaum, F. M., Weisz, J. R., & Snyder, S. S. (1982). Changing the world and changing self: A two process model of perceived control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 5–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 1 (Whole No. 609).Google Scholar
  65. Sashkin, M. (1984). Participative management is an ethical imperative. Organizational Dynamics, Spring, 5–22.Google Scholar
  66. Schacht, R. (1970). Alienation. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  67. Scott, K. D., & Taylor, G. S. (1985). An examination of conflicting findings on the relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism: A meta-analysis. Academy of Management Journal, 28, 599–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Shepard, J. M. (1971). Automation and alienation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  69. Sims, H. P. (1977). The leader as a manager of reinforcement contingencies. In J. G. Hunt & L. L. Larson (Eds.), Leadership: The cutting edge (pp. 121–137). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Somers, M. J. (1995). Organizational commitment, turnover and absenteeism: An examination of direct and interaction effects. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16, 49–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sommer, S., Bae, S. H., & Luthans, F. (1996). Organizational commitment across cultures: The impact of antecedents on Korean employees. Human Relations, 49, 977–993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Stagner, R. (1956). Psychology of industrial conflict. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  73. Steers, R. M., & Rhodes, S. R. (1978). Major influences on employee attendance: A process model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, 391–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Steers, R. M., & Rhodes, S. R. (1984). Knowledge and speculation about absenteeism. In P. S. Goodman & R. S. Atkin (Eds.), Absenteeism: New approaches to understanding, managing, and measuring employee absence (pp. 229–275). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  75. Stern, M. (1991, December 9). Empowerment frees employees. The Globe & Mail, p.B4.Google Scholar
  76. Szilagyi, A. D. (1980). Casual inferences between leader reward behavior and subordinate goal attainment, absenteeism, and work satisfaction. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 53, 195–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Thibaut, J. W., & Kelley, H. H. (1959). The social psychology of groups. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  78. Tichy, N. M., & Devanna, M. A. (1986). The transformational leader. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  79. Whyte, W. F. (1955). Money and motivation: An analysis of incentives in industry. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rabindra N. Kanungo
    • 1
  • Manuel Mendonca
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of ManagementMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations