Landmarks, Localization, and the Use of Morphometrics in Phylogenetic Analysis

  • Norman MacLeod
Part of the Topics in Geobiology book series (TGBI, volume 19)


Morphometries is the quantitative study of patterns of covariance with shape (Bookstein 1991). Since many morphological attributes of biological form are obviously reflections of evolutionary processes (e.g., Darwin 1859; Simpson 1944; Mayr 1963), and since assessments of patterns of morphological variation have been used traditionally to infer phylogenetic relations (e.g., Hennig 1966; Eldredge and Cracraft 1980; Mayr and Ashlock 1991) it would seem be natural to assume that morphometric analyses would play a large role in phylogenetic studies. This has not, however, been the case.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norman MacLeod
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PalaeontologyThe Natural History MuseumLondonUK

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