Milk-Borne EGF and Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Neonatal Rat Model

  • Bohuslav Dvorak
  • Debra L. McWilliam
  • Catherine S. Williams
  • Jessica A. Dominguez
  • Hana Holubec
  • Claire M. Payne
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 503)

Abstract

Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal (GI) disease of premature infants with excessive morbidity and mortality that afflicts 3,000 to 4,000 babies in the United States each year.1 Many factors contribute to the development of NEC, mainly prematurity, enteral feeding, infectious agents and/or intestinal hypoxia-ischemia. Enteral feeding is nearly always a prerequisite for the development of NEC, but the exact mechanism of NEC pathogenesis is poorly understood. The protective role of maternal milk in NEC pathogenesis has been reported.2 Various components of milk have been tested to protect the gut against NEC.3 Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a promising candidate for the treatment of NEC. Mammalian milk of many species contains high concentrations of EGF. Moreover, maternal milk is the major source of EGF for neonates during the suckling period.4 In contrast, EGF is absent in all commercial infant formulas. Strong effects of exogenous EGF on healing of damaged gastrointestinal mucosa or on intestinal adaptation after injury are reported in a number of studies.5 The aim of this study was to examine the effects of milk-borne EGF on the development of NEC in a neonatal rat model.

Keywords

Rubber Prostaglandin Ileal 

References

  1. 1.
    A. M. Kosloske, Epidemiology of necrotizing enterocolitis, Acta Paediatr. 396:2–7 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Lucas and T.J. Cole, Breast milk and neonatal necrotising enterocolitis, Lancet 336:1519–1523 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. S. Caplan, and W. MacKendrick, Necrotizing enterocolitis: a review of pathogenetic mechanisms and implications for prevention, Pediatr. Pathol.13:357–369 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    B.Dvorak, C.S. Williams, D.L. McWilliam, H. Shinohara, J.A. Dominguez, R.S. McCuskey, A.F. Philipps, and O. Koldovsky, Milk-borne epidermal growth factor modulates intestinal transforming growth factor-levels in neonatal rats, Pediatr. Res. 47:1–7 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M.K. Jones, M. Tomikawa, B. Mohajer, and A.S. Tarnawski, Gastrointestinal mucosal regeneration: role of growth factors, Front. Biosci. 4:D303–309 (1999).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    B. Dvorak, and R. Stepankova, Effects of dietary essential fatty acid deficiency on the development of rat thymus and immune system, Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 46:183–190 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. Dvorak, D.L. McWilliam, C.S. Williams, J.A. Dominguez, N.W. Machen, R.S. McCuskey, and A.F. Philipps, Artificial Formula Induces Precocious Maturation of the Small Intestine of Artificially Reared Suckling Rats, J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 31:162–169, (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bohuslav Dvorak
    • 1
  • Debra L. McWilliam
  • Catherine S. Williams
  • Jessica A. Dominguez
  • Hana Holubec
  • Claire M. Payne
  1. 1.University of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations