Cellular Mechanism for Milk-Borne Transmission of HIV and HTLV
Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell leukemia viruses (HTLV) by breastfeeding contributes significantly to the global spread of human retroviral diseases including acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS), adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-associated myelopathy-tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). It is imperative to develop novel strategies that could be used to improve maternal health, lower the transmission rate and secure disease-free status in the infected child. We have used a combination of in vitro studies and analysis of normal and seropositive mothers to describe the cellular composition of milk during long-term breastfeeding, and define the cellular constituents that are involved in transmission of HIV and HTLV infectivity in mammary tissue and milk.1–4 Our results provide evidence that the breast can serve as a reservoir of retroviral infectivity, and that several constituent cell types in milk can support productive HIV and HTLV infections. During ingestion, milk is mixed with saliva prior to swallowing. We found that mixing milk and saliva triggers fundamental changes in the composition of milk by cellular disruption and the formation of complexes between milk cells and salivary epithelial cells. This process could alter both the infective and the protective properties of milk and play an important role in oral transmission of cell associated retroviruses.
KeywordsLactate Leukemia Luminal Mastitis
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.R.J. LeVasseur, S.O. Southern, and P.J., Southern, Mammary epithelial cells support and transfer productive HTLV infection, J. Human Virol. 1(3):214–223 (1998).Google Scholar
- 3.S.O. Southern, Milk-borne transmission of HIV. Characterization of productively infected cells in breast milk and interactions between milk and saliva, J. Human Virol. 1(5):328–337 (1998).Google Scholar
- 4.P. Loureiro, S.O. Southern, and M.S.P. Oliveira, Adult T cell leukemia associated with breast disease in HTLV-I patient: clinical, immunopathological and virological studies, Am. J. Hematol. 2000 (in press).Google Scholar
- 6.J. Goodall, The chimpanzees of Gombe: patterns of behavior (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA), (1986).Google Scholar
- 7.R.S. Wells et al., The social structure of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins, in: Current Mammalogy, edited by H. Genoways (Plenum Press, New York), pp. 247–305 (1987).Google Scholar
- 12.S. Nakano, Y. Ando, K. Saito, I. Moriyama, M. Ichijo, T. Toyama, K. Sugamura, J. Imai, and Y. Hinuma, Primary infection of Japanese infants with adult T-cell leukaemia-associated retrovirus (ATLV): evidence for viral transmission from mothers to children, J. Infect. 12(3):205–212 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.A. Coutsoudis, K. Pillay, E. Spooner, L. Kuhn, and H.M. Coovadia, Influence of infant-feeding patterns on early mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Durban, South Africa: a prospective cohort study, South African Vitamin A Study Group, Lancet 354(9177):471–476 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar