The Early Surgeon-Anatomists

  • John M. Howard
  • Walter Hess
Chapter

Abstract

“The ancient Egyptians already knew…” — such is the frequent introduction to a historical work. This is not true for the pancreas, however. While the ancient Egyptians and Babylonians developed medicine to an astonishing degree and were knowledgeable about many anatomical structures, they failed to identify the pancreas. As pointed out by the Yale University pathologist Fitzgerald,(1) the pancreas was generally unknown in antiquity, both as an organ and as a seat of disease: “The organ probably did not attract the attention of the ancient priestly divinators (the ancestors of the pathologists), searching in animal entrails for portents, as readily as did a large abdominal organ as the liver.”

Keywords

Fermentation Europe Arsenic Cocaine Antimony 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    P. J. Fitzgerald, 1980. Medical anecdotes concerning some diseases of the pancreas, in: The Pancreas (P. J. Fitzgerald and A. B. Morrison, eds.). Baltimore and London: Williams and Wilkins, pp. 1–29.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. von Staden, 1989. Herophilus. The Art of Medicine in Early Alexandria. Edition, Translation and Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Castiglioni, 1927; E. B. Krumbhaer (trans.), 1941. A History of Medicine. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    . Encyclopedia Britannica Online, “Classical Scholarship” (August 4, 1999); http://www.eb.com.
  5. 5.
    J. F. Dobson, 1925. Herophilus of Alexandria, Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. Hist. Sect. 18:19.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. Guthrie, 1946. A History of Medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tertullianus, De Anima. cited in: Dobson, 1925.5 Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Tsuchiya, and N. Fujisawa, 1997. On the etymology of “pancreas,” Int. J. Pancreatol. 21:269–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. von Haller, 1774. Elementa physiologiae corporis human,auctore Alberto ab Haller, 1757–1766 [Elements of Physiology of the Human Body by Albrecht von Haller], Volume VI, Book XXII. Berne: Grasset, p. 427.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hippocrates, IIερl αδεvωv ovλoμελlης [On the system of the glands], Books IV, 2 and V, 1–2.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Galen; C. G. Kühn, (ed.), 1821. Opera Omnia [Complete works], Volume 2. Leipzig: Cnobloch.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. M. Schirmer, 1893. Beitrag zur Geschichte und Anatomie des Pankreas [Contribution to the History and Anatomy of the Pancreas], Inaugural-Dissertation behufs Erlangung der Doctorwürde der Hohen Medizinischen Fakultät zu Basel vorgelegt von Alfred Max Schirmer. Basel: Reinhardt Universittsdruckerei.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rufus [Ruphos] of Ephesus; C. Daremberg, and E. Ruelle (eds.), 1879. Oeuvres de Rufus d’Ephèse [Works of Rufus of Ephesus]. Paris: Baillère.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    G. Chaucer, F. N. Robinson (ed.), 1933. The Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, pp. 23–24.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ruphos of Ephesus. 1554. IIερl ovpμασlας τωv τωv τov αvθρωπov μoρlωv [On the names of the various parts of the human body], Lib. I, cap. 30, Paris.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    G. Aselli, 1640. De lactibus, sive lacteis venis, quarto vasorum mesaraicorum genere novo invento [On the lymph or lymphatic veins, the fourth type of mesenteric vessels, recently discovered], Leiden: Maire.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    F. Ruysch, 1665. Dilucidatio valvularum in vasis lymphaticis et lacteis [Explanation on the valves in the lymphatic and milk vessels]. The Hague: Gad.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. C. Brunner, 1688. De experimentis circa pancreas novis confirmatis [On newly confirmed experiments regarding the pancreas], Misc. Cur. Ephem. Acad. Nat. Cur., Dec. 2, Ann. 7, Obs. 132, p. 243.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. H. Major, 1954. A History of Medicine. Springfield, Illinois: Thomas, pp. 552–553.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. Siegel, 1968. Galen’s System of Physiology and Medicine. Basel: Karger, p. 247.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. O. Whipple, 1967. The Role of the Nestorians and Muslims in the History of Medicine. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. Singer, 1957. A Short History of Anatomy from the Greeks to Harvey, 2nd edition. New York: Dover.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. Schott, 1993. Chronik der Medizin [Chronicle of Medicine]. Dortmund: Harenberg.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mondino dei Liuzzi. 1316. Anathomia mundini. Bologna.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. M. Howard, W. Hess, and W. Traverso, 1998. Johann Georg Wirsüng (1589–1643) and the pancreatic duct: the prosector of Padua, Italy, J. Am. Coll. Surg., 187:201–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    G. Berengario da Carpi, 1522; L. R. Lind (trans.), 1959. Isagogae breves perlucidae ac uberimmae in anatomiam humani corporis [Short clear and detailed descriptions of human anatomy]. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. Fernelius [Fernel], 1554. De partium morbis et symptomates [On the different diseases and their symptoms], Volume 6, Paris, cap. 7.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    B. Eustachius, and J. M. Lancisius (ed.), 1717. Tabulae anatomicae clarissimi viri Bartholomei Eustachii [Anatomic tables of the famous Bartholomy Eustachi]. Cologne: Cramer & Perachon.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    A. Vesalius, 1543. De humani corporis fabrica libri septem [Seven books on the workings of the human body]. Basel: Oporinus.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. Vesalius, 1959. Compendium Totius Anatomiae Delineatio, a facsimile of the first English edition of 1553 in the version of Nicholaes Udall, with an introduction of O. D. O’Malley. London: Davison’s of Pall Mall.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. E. Skandalakis, S. E. Gray, and L. J. Skandalakis, 1987. Surgical anatomy of the pancreas, in: Surgical Diseases of the Pancreas, 2nd ed., (J. M. Howard, G. L. Jordan, and H. A. Reber, eds.). Philadelphia: Lea & Febinger.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    R. De Graaf, 1671. De succo pancreatico. Tractatus anatomico-medicus de succi pancreatici natura [On the pancreatic juice. Anatomico-medical treatise on the nature of pancreatic juice], 2nd edition. Leiden: Hackiana. See also: De Graaf, R. 1666. Traité de la Nature et de l’Usage du Suc Pancréatique [Treatise on the nature and the function of the pancreatic juice]. Paris: Varennes.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    N. Massa, 1536; L. R. Lind. (trans.), 1975. Liber introductorius anatomiae [Introductory book on anatomy], quoted in: Studies in Pre-Vesalian Anatomy (L. R. Lind). Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    J. Veslingius, and N. Culpepper (trans.), 1653. The Anatomy of the Body of Man. London: Cole.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    G. Fallopio, 1561. Observationes anatomicae [Anatomic observations]. Venice, in: Girolami Fallopii Opera Omnia Anatomica [Complete Works of Anatomy] (H. Boerhave and B. S. Albini, eds.), 1725, Leiden, obs. 414.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    C. Bauhin, 1590. Theatrum anatomicum [Anatomic theater]. Frankfurt: Becker, p. 133.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    J. Wesling, 1647. Syntagma anatomicum [Compendium of Anatomy], 3rd ed., Padua: Paul Frambotti.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    A. Gamba, 1992 Johann Georg Wirsung, una nuova biografia [Johann Georg Wirsung, a new biography], in: Atti del Convegno Celebrativo di Johann Georg Wirsung. Padua: Edizioni Universitarie Patavine, pp. 37–55.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    . A. Gamba, and G. Ongaro, 1993. “Anatomes peritissimus”: Johann Georg Wirsung’s unknown experiments on the circulation of the blood, Physis, Revista Internazionale di Storia della Scienza 30:231–244.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    W. Cooke, 1822. Preface, in: The Seat and Causes of Diseases,investigated by Anatomy (E. B. Morgagni). London: Teape.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    A. Gamba, and K. A. Doehnel, 1986. Johann Georg Wirsung, auch ein anatomischer Kupferstecher [also an anatomical copperplate engraver], XXX Congress on the History of Medicine, Düsseldorf, pp. 608–621.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    . Archivio Civico Antico, Ufficio di Sanità, vol. 474 (Libro dei Mortui Anni 1641–1645). [Ancient Archives of the City of Padua, Health Office, Register of the Deceased, vol. 474, Years 1641–1645], cited in: La scoperta del dotto pancreatico [The discovery of the pancreatic duct] (G. Ongaro), 1992, Atti des Convegno Celebrativo di J. G. Wirsung. Padua: Edizioni Universitarie Patavine, pp. 57–90.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    G. Ongaro, 1992. La scoperta del dotto pancreatico [The discovery of the pancreatic duct], in: Atti des Convegno Celebrativo di J G. Wirsung. Padua: Edizioni Universitarie Patavine, pp. 57–90.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    B. Kisch, 1949. Cervo Conigliano: a Jewish graduate of Padua in 1743, J. Hist. Med. 4:450–459.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    “Moritz Hoffmann,” in: Biographisches Lexikon hervorragender Aerzte, 1929. Berlin and Vienna: Urban and Schwarzenberg.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    T. Bartholin, 1677. Anatomia Bartholiniana,Jo[hann Anthony] Huguetan, Lugdunum [Leiden], Chapter 13 [On the pancreas], pp. 113–123.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    T. Bartholin, 1661. Anatomia reformata, cited in: Schirmer, 1893.(12) Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    . O. Worm, 1993. Epistolae I, cited in: Ongaro and Gamba.(49) Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    G. Ongaro, and A. Gamba, 1993. Experimenti di Johann Georg Wirsung sulla circulazione del sangue [Experiments of Johann Georg Wirsung on the Circulation of the Blood], in: Atti e Memorie dell’Accademia Patavina di Scienze,Lettere ed Arti, Volume 104, 1991–1992, parte 2: Classe di Scienze Matematiche e Naturali, Padua, pp. 53–80.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    T. Bartholin, 1993. Epistolarum Medicinalium (…) Centuria I et II [First and Second Hundred of Letters on Medicine], cited in: Ongaro and Gamba.(49) Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    J. Riolan, 1649. Johannis Riolani Opera Anatomica [Anatomical Works of Jean Riolan], Paris, p. 811.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    G. B. Morgagni, 1728. Epistolae Anatomicae [Anatomic Letters], cited in: Schirmer, 1893.(12) Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    J. M. Hoffman, 1685. Dissertationes anatomico-physiologicaeJohannis Van Horne [Anatomicophysiological writings of Johann Van Horne], cited in: Ongaro, 1992.(43) Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    L. Choulant, 1852. Geschichte und Bibliographie der anatomischen Abbildung [History and Bibliography of Anatomic Illustration]. Leipzig: Rudolf Weigel.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    K. Otte, University Library of Göttingen (personal communication).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    L. Hollender, University of Strasbourg (personal communication).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dr. Wolff, University Library of Basel (personal communication).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    S. Kohlmann, 1997. University Library of Nurenberg-Erlangen (personal communication).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    G. B. Morgagni, Epistulae anatomicae [Anatomic letters], Volume I, art 84, p. 31–32, cited in: Wirsüng, Anatomista celebre e incisore ignoto [Wirsüng, famous anatomist and unknown engraver] (L. Premuda and A. J. Gamba), 1981, Atti e memorie dell’Accademia Patavina di Scienze ed Arti, Volume 92 (1979–80), Parte III: Classe di Scienze Morali, Lettere ed Arti, Società Cooperativa Tipografica, Padua.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    G. Favaro, 1941–1942. Il terzo centenario della scoperta del condotto pancreatico fatta in Padova dal Wirsüng [The three hundredth anniversary of the discovery of the pancreatic duct by Wirsüng in Padua], Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 101 II, pp. 179–181.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    G. Bidloo, 1685. Anatomia humani corporis in centum et quinque tabulis illustrata [Anatomy of the human body illustrated by 105 drawings]. Amsterdam: Dyk and Boom.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    . A. von Murait, 1677. Vademecum anatomicum [Anatomic Companion]. Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    C. L. Welsch, 1698. Tabulae anatomicae de universam fabricam humani corporis [Anatomic illustrations of the complete structure of the human body].Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    W. Cheselden, 1713. Anatomy of the Human Body. London.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    J. J. Manget, 1717. Theatrum anatomicum [Anatomic Theatre]. Paris.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    L. Heister, 1717. Compendium anatomicum [Compendium of Anatomy]. Nürnberg.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    G. D. Santorini, 1724. Observationes anatomicae [Anatomic observations]. Venice; also 1739, Leiden.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    T. Wharton, 1656. Adenographia sive glandularum totius corporis descriptio [Description of the glands of the whole body]. London.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    J. Rhodius, 1661. Mantissa anatomica extat cum Thom. Bartholini historiarum anatomicarum et medicarum rariorum centuria V et VI. [Anatomic Supplement presented with Thomas Bartholin’s hundred rare anatomical and medical histories]. Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    N. Stensen, 1664. Observationum anatomicarum de musculis glandularis specimen [An example of anatomic observations on glandular muscles]. Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    F. De le Boë [Sylvius], 1679. Opera Medica [Medical Works]. Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    F. Ruysch, 1665. Delucidatio valvarum in vasis lymphaticis et lacteis, cum figuris aeneis. Accesserunt quaedam observationes anatomicae rariores [Explanation of the valves of the lymphatic vessels with engravings. In addition some more rare anatomic observations]. Den Haag.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    S. Coffins, 1685. A Systeme of Anatomy,treating the body of man, beasts, fish, birds,insects and plants. London.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    G. D. Santorini, and M. Girardi (ed.), 1775. Jo. Dominici Santorini anatomici summi septemdecim tabulae quas nunc prim um edit atque explicat iisque alias addit de structura mammarum et de tunica testis vaginali Michael Girardi [Giovanni Domenico Santorini, theexcellent anatomist’s seventeen tables, now for the first time edited and explained and supplemented by others on the structure of the breasts and of the tunica of the testicles byMichael Girardi]. Parma: Royal Typography.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    G. Cagnetto, 1916. Un grande anatomico della serenissima, Giandomenico Santorini [A great Anatomists anatomist of Venice, Giandomenico Santorini], Atti del Reale Instituto Veneto di scienze, lettere ed arti, anno academico 1915–1916, Volume 75, parte seconda. Venice: Ferrari, pp. 1164–1188.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    J. B. Winslow, 1732. Exposition anatomique de la structure du corps humain [Anatomic description of the structure of the human body], Volume 2, Paris, pp. 170, 352–365.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    C. D. Stern, 1986. A historical perspective on the discovery of the accessory duct of the pancreas, the ampulla “of Vater” and pancreas divisum, Gut 27:203–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    D. Leclerq, and J. J. Manget, 1685. Bibliotheca Anatomica sive recen in anatomia inventorum Thesaurus locupletissimus, inque integra atque absolutissima [Anatomic Library or a new, rich, most complete and revised treasure of the discoveries in anatomy], 2 volumes. Geneva: Chouet.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    E. Sandifort, 1780. Tabulae intestini duodeni [Drawings of the intestinal duodenum]. Leiden.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    L. Caldini, 1791. Institutiones Anatomiae. Venice: Remondiniana.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    J. F. Meckel, Jr., 1816. Handbuch der pathologischen Anatomie [Textbook of Pathological Anatomy], Volume 2. Leipzig: Reclam, pp. 153–154.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    J. F. Meckel, Jr., 1818. Sur la forme du canal intestinal dans le mammifère et en particulier dans]’homme [On the formation of the intestinal tract in mammals and in particular in man], j Comp] Sci. Med. 4:365.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    D. Moyse, 1852. Etude historique et critique sur les fonctions et les maladies du pancréas [Historical and critical study of the functions and diseases of the pancreas]. Paris: Leclerc.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    A. Vater, 1720. Dissertatio anatomica qua novum bilis diverticulum circa orificium ductus choledochi ut et valvulosam colli vesicae felleae constructionem, utrimque structurae eximia utilitate in via bilis determinata [Treatise on a new diverticulum near the orifice of the choledochus and also a valvular arrangement in the neck of the gallbladder, both extremely useful structures for the passage of bile]. Wittenberg.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    F. Glisson, 1654. Anatomica hepatis [Anatomy of the liver]. London: Digiurdianis.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    E. A. Boyden, 1936. The pars intestinalis of the common bile duct as viewed by the older anatomists: Vesalius, Glisson, Bianchi, Vater, Haller, Santorini, etc., Anat. Rec. 66:217–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    . S. Gage, 1879. The ampulla of Vater and the pancreatic ducts in the domestic cat, Am. Quart. Micro. J. 1:1–20.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    R. Oddi, 1887. D’une disposition a sphinctèr spciale de l’ouverture du canal cholédoque [On a special sphincteric structure at the orifice of the common bile duct], Arch. Ital. Biol. 8:317–322.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    I. M. Modlin, and H. Ahlman, 1994. Oddi: The paradox of the man and the sphincter, Arch. Surg. 129:549–556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    N. Stensen, 1662. Observationes anatomicae [Anatomic observations]. Leiden.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    N. Highmore, 1651. Corporis humani disquisitio anatomica [Anatomical examination of the human body]. Den Haag.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    T. T. Kerckring, 1670. Spicilegium anatomicum [Anatomic gleanings]. Amsterdam: Frislus, p. 149, obs. 75.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    T. Bartholin, 1651. Anatomia reformata [Reformed anatomy]. Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    B. Swalve, 1668. Pancreas pancrene adornante sive pancreatis et succi ex eo profluentis commentum succintum [The pancreas revised or a short comment on the pancreas and the juice originating from it]. Amsterdam. Jansson and Waesberg.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    F. Sylvius (de le Boé), 1679–1680. Disputationes medicae [Medical discussion] and Praxeos medicinae idea nova [A new concept of medical practice], in: Opera Omnia Medica [Collected Medical Works] (F. Sylvius). Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    I. M. Modlin, 2000. Regnier de Graaf, Paris, purging and the pancreas, j Clin. Gastroenterol. 30:109–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    R. De Graaf, 1668, 1672. De Mulierum organis generationis enservientibus [On the organs of females serving for reproduction]. Leiden.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    H. R. Catchpole, 1940. Regnier de Graaf 1641–73, Bull. Hist. Med. VIII:1261.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    S. T. Sömmering, 1796. Vom Baue des menschlichen Körpers [On the frame of the human body], Volume 8. Frankfurt: Varrentrapp, A.M., p. 150.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    J. N. Pechlin, 1689. Observationum physico-medicorum libri septem [Seven books of physicomedical observations], Book 3. Hamburg.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    T. S. Welton, 1931. Jacob Benignus Winslow (1669–1760) “Foramen of Winslow,” Am..j. g. 11:133.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    . The Scientific Revolution, Wesyall Catalogue, Scientific Community,Dr. Robert A. Hatch, University of Florida, “Jacob [Jacques] Winslow” (November 17, 1999); http://web.clas.ufl.edu/users/rhatch/SAM-V-Z.htm.
  103. 103.
    C. C. Mettler, and F. A. Mettler (ed.), 1947. History of Medicine; A Correlative Text, Arranged According to Subjects. Philadelphia: Blakiston, p. 81.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    M. Brederode, 1865. Biographisch Woordenboek der Nederlanden, Volume 2. Haarlem.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    B. Bracegirdle, 1987; J. J. Lister. 1786–1869. Proc. Microscop. Soc. 22:273–297.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    O. H. Wangensteen, and S. D. Wangensteen, 1978. The Rise of Surgery from Empiric Craft to Scientific Discipline. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    M. Malpighi, 1669. De viscerum structura exercitatio anatomica Marcelli Malpighi [Marcello Malpighi’s anatomical exercises on the structure of the viscera]. Amsterdam: Petrus le Grand, p. 44, cap. IX.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    M. F. X. Bichat, 1802. Anatomie générale appliquée à la physiologie et médecine [General anatomy applied to physiology and medicine], 2 volumes. Paris: Brosson and Claude (Second edition 1821).Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    F. Leuret, and J.-L. Lassaigne, 1825. Recherches physiologiques et chimique pour servir à l’histoire de la digestion [Physiological and chemical investigations to serve as the story of digestion], Chez Madame Huzard. Paris: Imprimerie.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    A. D. Morrison-Low, 1997. John Hughes Bennett: a catalogue of some surviving artifacts, Proc. R. Coll. Phys. Edinb. 27:183-193.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    L. Belloni, 1965. Loisfmtere di Oddi, Simposi clinici 2:16.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    C. Gasparotti, 1981. Padova: Citta del Santo. Venice: Storti Edizioni.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    E. Hollander, 1953. Anekdoten aus der medizinischen Weltgeschichte. Stuttgart: Enke.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    W. Pagel (ed.), 1930. Lexikon hervorragender Ärzte, 6 volumes. Berlin-Wien: Urban and Schwarzenberg.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • John M. Howard
    • 1
  • Walter Hess
    • 2
  1. 1.Emeritus Medical College of OhioToledoUSA
  2. 2.University of BaselSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations