Advertisement

Long-term Change and Short-term Shifting in the Economy of Philippine Forager-Traders

  • Laura Lee Junker
Part of the Fundamental Issues in Archaeology book series (FIAR)

Abstract

When Europeans first made contact with mainland and island Southeast Asia populations, they found a complex amalgam of groups of extremely diverse economic orientations, levels of sociopolitical complexity, and linguistic and ethnic affiliations. Many researchers have stated that the considerable ecological diversity and geographic fragmentation of Southeast Asia contributed to the high degree of economic specialization and ubiquity of intensive interethnic exchange relations among various groups of tropical forest foragers, tribal swiddening populations, and complex chiefdoms and kingdoms focused on maritime trade and intensive rice farming (e.g., Dunn 1975; Hutterer,1974, 1976, 1983). The configurations of such interethnic trade systems in the historic period have been well documented by early texts associated with literate kingdoms of late first millennium A.D. and early second millennium A.n. Southeast Asia, Chinese trade records, and later European histories (Andaya 1975; Hall 1985:1-20, 80-89; 1992:257-259; Junker 1999:239-259; Miksic 1984; Wheatley 1983; Wolters 1971:13-14). Hunter-gatherer populations that generally inhabited the interior uplands of Southeast Asia include the Semang (Orang Ash) of Malaysia; the Punan and Penan of Borneo; the Kudu of Sumatra; the Agta, Ata, and Batak of the Philippines; the Togucil of Maluku (the Moluccas or “Spice Islands”), the Nuaulu of Scram (in eastern Indonesia), the Andaman Islanders in the Indian Ocean, and various smaller and lesser known groups in Thailand and Vietnam (see Fig. 11.1)

Keywords

Tropical Forest Foreign Trade Sixteenth Century Archaeological Evidence Lowland Site 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, M., 1985. The Rain Forest of Northeastern Luzon and Agta Foragers. In The eta of Northeastern Luzon:Recent Studies, edited by P. Bion Griffin and A. Estioko-Griffin, pp. 45–58. San Carlos, Cebu City, Philippines.Google Scholar
  2. Andaya, B., 1975. The Nature of the State in Eighteenth Century Perak. In Pre-Colonial State Systems in Southeast Asia, edited by A. Reid and L. Castles. pp. 22–35. Monographs of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society No. 6. Royal Asiatic Society, Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  3. Andaya, B., 1995. Upstreams and I)ownstreams in Early Modern Sumatra. The Historian 57(3):537–552.Google Scholar
  4. Bailey, R. G., Head, G., fenike, M., Owen, B., Rechtman, R., and Zechenter, F., 1989, Hunting and Gathering in Tropical Rain Forest:Is it Possible? American Anthropologist 91:59–82.Google Scholar
  5. Bevacqua, R. F., 1972, An Analysis of a Sample of Sohoton Cave Lithics. Leyte-Samar Studies 6(2):69–83.Google Scholar
  6. Bellwood, P., 1992, Southeast Asia Before History. In The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, Vol. 1:From Early Times to c. 1800,edited by N. Tarling. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  7. Bellwood, P., 1997, Prehistory of the Indo-MalaysianArchipelago, 2nd ed. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.Google Scholar
  8. Benjamin, G., 1976, Austroasiatic Subgroupings and Prehistory in the Malay Peninsula. In Auslroasiatic Studies, edited by P. Jenner, L. Thompson and S. Starosta, pp. 37–128. University of Hawaii Press. Honolulu.Google Scholar
  9. Benjamin, G., 1985, In the Long Term:Three Themes in Malayan Cultural Ecology. In Cultural Values and Human Ecology in Southeast Asia,edited by K. L. Hutterer, T. Rambo, and G. Lovelace, pp. 219–278. Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  10. Binford, L. R., 1980. Willow Smoke and Dog’s Tails:Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems and Archaeological Site Formation. American Antiquity 45:4–20.Google Scholar
  11. Blust, R., 1976, Austronesia Culture History:Some Linguistic Inferences and Their Relations to the Archaeological Record. World Archaeology 8:19–43.Google Scholar
  12. Blust, R., 1989, Comment on Headland and Reid (1989). Current Anthropology 30(1):53–54.Google Scholar
  13. Bowdler. S., In press, Hunters and Traders in Northern Australia. In Forager-Traders in South and Southeast Asia. edited by K. Morrison and L. junker. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.Google Scholar
  14. Brosius, P., 1988. A Separate Reality:Comnients on Hoffman’s The Punan:Mutter and Gatherers of Borneo. Borneo Research Bulletin 20:81–106.Google Scholar
  15. Brosius, P., 1991, Foraging in Tropical Rain Forests:The Case of the Penan of Sarawak. East Malaysia (Borneo). Human Ecology 19:123–150.Google Scholar
  16. Bui Vinh, 1998, The Stone Age Archaeology in Viet Nam: Achievements and General Model. In Southeast Asian Archaeology 1994, edited by P.-Y. Manguin. pp. 5–12. Centre for Southeast Asian Studies, University of Hull, Hull.Google Scholar
  17. Cadelina, R., 1980, Adaptive Strategies to Deforestation:The Case of the Ata of Negros island, Philippines. Silliuran Journal 27(2–3):93–112.Google Scholar
  18. Cherry, R., 1978. An Analysis of the Lithe Industry of Buad Island. Samar, Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society 6:3–80.Google Scholar
  19. Conklin, H., 1949. Preliminary Report on Fieldwork on the Islands of Mindoro and Palawan, Philippines. American Anthropologist 51(2):268–273.Google Scholar
  20. Coutts, P., 1984. A Hunter-Gatherer-Agriculturalist Interface on Panay island. In Southeast Asian Archaeology at the Fifteenth Pacific Science Congress, edited by D. Bayard, pp. 254–271. University of Otago, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  21. Denbow, J. R.. 1984. Prehistoric Herders and Foragers of the Kalahari:The Evidence of 1500 Years of interaction. In Past and Present in Hunter Gatherer Studies, edited by C. Schrire, pp. 175–193. Academic Press, Orlando.Google Scholar
  22. Dentan, R., Endicott, K., Gomes, A. and Hooker, M., 1997, Malaysia and the Original People. Allynand Bacon. Boston.Google Scholar
  23. Dunn, F. L., 1975, Rain-Forest Collectors and Traders:A Study of Resource Utilizatior in Modern and Ancient Malaga. Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society Monograph No. 5. Royal Asiatic Society. Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
  24. Early, J. D. and Headland, T., 1998. Population Dynamics of a Philippine Rain Forest People. University of Florida Press, Gainesville.Google Scholar
  25. Eder, J., 1987, On the Road to Tribal Extinction: Depopulation Deculturation, and Adaptive Well-Being Among the Barak of the Philippines. University of California Press. Berkeley.Google Scholar
  26. Eder, J., 1988. Hunter-gatherer/Fanner Exchange in the Philippines:Some Implications for Ethnic Identity and Adaptive Well-Being. In Ethnic Diversity and the Control of Natural Resources in Southeast Asia,edited by T. Rambo, K. Gillogly and K. Hutterer. pp. 37–57. University of Michigan Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  27. Ellen, R.. 1988. Foraging. Starch Extraction and the Sedentary Lifestyle in the Lowland Rainforest of Central Seram. In Hunters and Gatherers.Vol. 1: History, Evolution and Social Change, edited by T. Ingold, D. Riches, and J. Woodburn, pp. 117–134. Berg Press, Oxford. England.Google Scholar
  28. Endicott, K., 1988, Property, Power and Conflict Among the Batek of Malaysia. In Hunters and Gatherers 2:Property. Power and Ideology, edited by T. Ingold, D. Riches and J. Woodburn. pp. 110–128. St. Martin’s Press, New York..Google Scholar
  29. Estioko-Griffin, A., 1985, Women As Hunters:The Case of an Eastern Cagayan Agta Group. In The Agta of Norlbeastern Luzon:Recent Studies, edited by P. B. Griffin and A. EstiokoGriffin. pp. 18–32. University of San Carlos Press, Cebu City, Philippines.Google Scholar
  30. Estioko-Griffin, A. and Dion, P., Griffin, 1975, The Ebukecl Agta of Northeastern Luzon. Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society 3:237–244.Google Scholar
  31. Fix, A., 1995, Malayan Paleosociology:Implications for Patterns of Genetic Variation among the Orang Asli. American Anthropologist 97:313–323.Google Scholar
  32. Fix, A., In press. Foragers, Farmers, and Traders in the Malayan Peninsula:Origins of Cultural and Biological Diversity. In laraker-Traders in South and Southeast Asia. edited by K. Morrison and I.. Junker. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  33. Flenley, J., 1979, The Equatorial Raira Foresty:A Geological History, Butterworth, London.Google Scholar
  34. Fox, R., 1970, The Tahon Cares. National Museum Publications, Manila.Google Scholar
  35. Glover, I., 1977. The Hoahinhian Hunter-Gatherers or Early Agriculturalists of Southeast Asia. In Hunters, Gatherers and First Farmers Rewind Europe. edited by J. Meganv. pp. 145–166. Leicester University Press. Leicester.Google Scholar
  36. Gontran, C., 1971, The Hoabinhian and After:Subsistence Patterns in Southeast Asia During the Latest Pleistocene and Early Recent Periods. World Archaeology 2:300–320.Google Scholar
  37. Griffin, P. B., 1984, Forager Resource and Land Use in the Humid TropicsThe Agra of Northeastern Luzon, the Philippines. ln Past and Present in Hunter-Gatherer Studies, edited by C. Schrire. pp. 175–193. Academic Press, Orlando.Google Scholar
  38. Griffin, P. B., 1985. Problems and Prospects, In The Agta of Northeastern Luzon:Recent Studies, edited by P. Bion Griffin and A. Fstioko-Griffin, San Carlos. Cebu City, Philippines.Google Scholar
  39. Griffin, P. B.. 1989, Hunting, Farming, and Sedentism in a Rain Forest Foraging Society. ln Fanners as Hunters. edited by S. Kent, pp. 60–70. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.Google Scholar
  40. Gullick, J., 1958, Indigenous Political Systems of Western Malaya. Athlone Press. London.Google Scholar
  41. Gunn, M. M.. 1995, The Development of Pre-Hispanic Philippine Subsistence Exchange Networks:Preliminary Results From Flotation. Convergence 2(1):34–38.Google Scholar
  42. Gunn, M. M., 1997, The Development of Social Networks:Subsistence Production and Exchange Between the Sixth and Sixteenth Centuries A.D. in the Tanjay Region, Negros Oriental, Philippines, Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.Google Scholar
  43. Hall, K., 1985. Maritime Trade and.State Development in Early Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. Honolulu.Google Scholar
  44. Hall, K., 1992, Economic History of Early Southeast Asia. ln The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia. Vol. 1:Front Early limes to c. 1800. edited by N. Tailing. pp. 183–275. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.Google Scholar
  45. Hayden, B.. 1981, Subsistence and Ecological Adaptations of Modern Hunter-Gatherers. In Omnivorous Primates, edited by R. Harding and G. Teleki. pp. 344–421. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  46. Headland, T., 1975, The Casiguran Duniagats Today and in 1936. Philippine Qariuierlyr of Culture and Society 3:245–257.Google Scholar
  47. Headland, T.. 1987, The Wild Yam. Question:How Well Could Independent Hunter-Gatherers Live in a Tropical Rainforest Environment? Human Ecology 15(4):463–491.Google Scholar
  48. Headland, T. and L. Reid, 1989. Hunter-Gatherers and Their Neighbors From Prehistory to the Present. Carrent Anthrnpology 30(1):43–66.Google Scholar
  49. Headland, T. and L. Reid, 1991, Holocene Foragers and Interethnic Trade:A Critique of the Myth of Isolated Independent Hunter-Gatherers. In Between Bands and States. edited by S. Gregg. pp. 333–340. Occasional Paper No. 9. Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.Google Scholar
  50. Higham, C., 1989, The Aro-haeologv of Mainland Southeast Asia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  51. Hirsh, E. and Rockhill, W. R., 1911, Chau Ju-kua: His Work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, Entitled Chu-fan-chih. Imperial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia.Google Scholar
  52. Hoffman, C., 1984, Punan Foragers in the ‘Priding Networks of Southeast Asia. In Past and Present in Hunter Gatherer Studies. edited by C. Schrirc, pp. 123–150. Academic Press. New York.Google Scholar
  53. Hoffman, C., 1986. The Punan:Flunters and Gatherers of Borneo. UMI Research Press, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  54. Hoffman, E., 1982. The Forest Frontier in the Tropics: Pioneer Settlement and Agricultural Intensification in Negros Oriental. In Houses Built on Scattered Poles:Prehistory and Ecology in: Vegros Oriental. Philippines, edited by K. Hutterer and W. Macdonald. pp. 53–84. University of San Carlos, Cebu City. Philippines.Google Scholar
  55. Hutterer, K. L., 1974. The Evolution of Philippine Lowland Societies. Mankind 9(4):287–299.Google Scholar
  56. Hutterer, K. L. 1976, An Evolutionary Approach to the Southeast Asian Cultural Sequence. Current Anthropology 17:221–242.Google Scholar
  57. Flutterer, K. L., 1977, Reinterpreting the Southeast Asian Paleolithic. In Sunda and Salyut, edited by J. Allen, J. Golson and R. Jones. pp. 31–71. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  58. Hutterer, K. L., 1981. Bais Anthropological Project, Phase II: A First Preliminary Report. Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society 9(4):333–341.Google Scholar
  59. Hutterer, K. L.. 1983, The Natural and Cultural History of Southeast Asian Agriculture:Ecological and Evolutionary Aspects. A ntbmpos 78:169–212.Google Scholar
  60. Hutterer, K. L., 1991, Losing Track of the Tribes:Evolutionary Sequences in Southeast Asia. In Profiles in Cultural Evolution, edited by A. T. Rambo and K. Gillogly. pp. 219–234. University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology Paper No. 85, University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  61. Flutterer, K. L., and Macdonald W. K., (eds.), 1982. Houses Built on Scattered Poles:Prehistory and Ecology in Negros Oriental. Philippines. University of San Carlos. Cebu City, Philippines.Google Scholar
  62. Junker, L. L., 1990, The Organization of Infra-Regional and Long-Distance Trade in Pre-Hispanic Philippine Complex Societies. Asian Perspectives 29(2):167–209.Google Scholar
  63. Junker, L. L., 1993, Archaeological Excavations at the Late First Millennium and Early Second Millennium A.D. Settlement of Tanjay. Negros Oriental:Household Organization, Chiefly Production, and Social Ranking. Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society 21(2):146–225.Google Scholar
  64. Junker, L. L. 1994, The Development of Centralized Craft Production Systems in A.D. 500–1600 Philippine Chiefdoms. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 25(1):1–30.Google Scholar
  65. Junker, L. L, 1996, Hunter-Gatherer Landscapes and Lowland Trade in the Pre-Hispanic Philippines. World Archaeology 27(2):389–410.Google Scholar
  66. Junker, L. L., 1999, Raiding. Trading. and Feasting:The Political Economy of Philippine Chiefdoms. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.Google Scholar
  67. Junker, L. L., In press a, Economic Specialization and Inter-Ethnic Trade Between Foragers and Farmers in the Prehispanic Philippines. In Forager-Traders in South and Southeast Asia, edited by K. Morrison and L. Junker. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  68. Junker, L. L., In press b, Introduction:Southeast Asia. In Forager-Traders in South and Southeast Asia, edited by K. Morrison and L. junker. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.Google Scholar
  69. Junker, L. L., Mudar, K. and Schwaller, M., 1994, Social Stratification, Household Wealth and Competitive Feasting in 15th-16th Century Philippine Chiefdoms. Research in Economic Anthropology 15:307–358.Google Scholar
  70. Junker, L., Gunn, M. and Santos, M. J., 1996, The Tanjay Archaeological Project:A Preliminary Repon on the 1994 and 1995 Field Seasons. Cont’rgence 2(2):30--68.Google Scholar
  71. Kelly, R., 1983, Hunter-Gatherer Mobility Strategies. Journal of Anthropological Research 39:277–306.Google Scholar
  72. Macdonald, W. K., 1982, The Bais Anthropological Project. Phase III:A lreliminary Report With Some Initial Observations. Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society 10:197–210.Google Scholar
  73. Miksic, J., 1984, A Comparison Between Some Long-Distance Trading institutions of the Malacca Straits Area and of the Western Pacific. In Southeast Asian Archaeology al the Fifteenth Pacific Science Congress, edited by D. Bayard, pp. 235–253. University of Orago, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  74. Mudar, K., 1997, Patterns of Animal Utilization in the Holocene of the Philippines:A Comparison of Faunal Samples From Four Archaeological Sites. Asian Perspectives 36(l):67–105.Google Scholar
  75. Omoto, R. 1985, The Negritos:Genetic Origins and Microevolution. In Out ofAsia:Peopling the Americas and the Pacific,edited by R. Kirk and E. Szathmary, pp. 123–131. Journal of Pacific Prehistory, Canberra.Google Scholar
  76. Oracion, T., 1960, The Culture of the Negritos on Negros Island. Stllinian Journal 7:201–218.Google Scholar
  77. Parry, W., 1982a, Observations on the Arrow Technology of the Negritos. In Houses Built on Scattered Poles: Prehistory and Ecology in Negros Oriental. Philippines, edited by K. Hutterer and W. Macdonald_ pp. 107–116. University of San Carlos, Cebu City, Philippines.Google Scholar
  78. Parry, W., 1982b, Stone Tools From the liais Aret. Philippines:Technology, Function, and Distribution. In Houses Built on Scattered Poles: Prehistor’and Ecology in Negros Oriental, Philippines. edited by K. Flutterer and W. Macdonald, pp. 303–330. University of San Carlos, Cebu City, Philippines.Google Scholar
  79. Peterson, W.. 1974, Summary Repon of Two Archaeological Sites from North-!:astern Luzon. Archaeology and Phlsiral Anthropology in Oceania 9:26–35.Google Scholar
  80. Rahmann, R., and Maceda, M., 1955, Notes on the Negritos of Northern Negros. Anthropos 50:810–836.Google Scholar
  81. Rai, N., 1982, From Forest to Field A.Study of Philippine Negritos in Transition, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.Google Scholar
  82. Rambo, A. T., 1988, Why Are the Semang? Ecology and Ethnogenesis of Aboriginal Groups in Peninsular Malaysia. In Ethnic Ditersity and the Control of Natural Resources in Southeast Asia, edited by A. T. Rambo, K. Gillogly, and K. Hutterer, pp. 303–330. University of Michigan Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  83. Reid, L., 1987, The Early Switch Hypotltesist.inguistic Evidence for Contact Between Negritos and Austronesians. Mart and Culture in Oceania 3:41–59.Google Scholar
  84. Reynolds, T. G.. 1990. The Hcktbinhian: A Review. In Bibliographic Reviews of Far Eastern Archaeology, edited by G. Barnes, pp. 1–30. Oxbow Books, Oxford.Google Scholar
  85. Ronquillo, W.. 1981, The Technology and Functional Analysis of Lithic Flake tbols from Rabel Carne, Northern Luzon. Philippines, National Museum of the Philippines Papers No. 13. National Museum of the Philippines, Manila.Google Scholar
  86. Rousseau, J., 1984, Review Anicle:Four Theses on the Nomads of Central Borneo. Borneo Research Bulletin 16:85–95.Google Scholar
  87. Sandbukt, O.. 1988. Tributary Tradition and Relations of Affinity and Gender among the Sumatran Kubii. In Hunters and Gatherers. Vol. 1:Histon Evolution and Social Change, edited by T. tngold, D. Riches, and J. Woodburn, pp. 107–116. Berg Press, Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  88. Schlegel, S., 1979, Trnrray Subsistence. Ateneo de Manila Press, Quezon City, Philippines.Google Scholar
  89. Schrire, C., 1980, An Inquiry into the Evolutionary Status and Apparent Identity of San Hunter-Gatherers. Human Ecology 8:9–32.Google Scholar
  90. Seitz, S., 1981. Die Penan in Sarawak und Brunei:lhre Kulturhistorische Einordnung und Derzeitige Situation. Paideorna 27:275–311.Google Scholar
  91. Sellato, B. J. L., 1988, The Nomads of Borneo:Hoffntan and “Devolution.” Borneo Research Bulletin 20:106–120.Google Scholar
  92. Shoocondej, R., 1996, Working Towards an Anthropological Perspective on Thai Prehistory:Current Research on the Post-Pleistocene. In Indo-Pacific Prehistory:The Chiang Mai Papers. Vol. 1, edited by P. Bellwood, pp. 119–132. Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association. Australian National University, Canberra.Google Scholar
  93. Snow, B., R. Shutter, D. Nelson, J. Vogel, and J. Southon. 1986, Evidence of Early Rice Cultivation in the Philippines. Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society 14:3–11.Google Scholar
  94. Solheim, W. G., 1981. Philippine Prehistory. In The People and An of the Philippines, edited by G. Casals, pp. 17–83. Museum of Cultural History, University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  95. Spielmann, K., and Eder, J.. 1994, Hunters and Farmers:Then and Now. Annual Review of Anthropology 23:303–323.Google Scholar
  96. Spriggs, M., 2000. Can Hunter-Gatherers Live in Tropical Rain Forests? The Pleistocene Island Melanesian Evidence. In Hunters and Gatherers in the Modern World, edited by P. Schweitzer, M. Biesele, and R. Hitchcock, pp. 287–304. Berghahn Books, New York.Google Scholar
  97. Warren, C., 1977. Palawan. In insular Southeast Asia:Ethnographic Section 4:The Philippines. edited by F. Lebar, pp. 229–290. HRAF. New Haven, CT.Google Scholar
  98. Wernstedt, F., and Spencer, J. E., 1967, The Philippine Island Wodd:A Physical. Cultural and Regional Geography. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  99. Wheatley, P., 1983, Nagara and Conrmandery:Origins of Southeast Asian Urban Traditions. University of Chicago Dept. of Geography Research Paper No, 207–208, Chicago.Google Scholar
  100. Whitmore, T. C., 1975. Tropical Rainforest of the Far East. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  101. Wilmsen, E., 1983, The Ecology of Illusion:Anthropological Foraging in the Kalahari. Reviews in Anthropology 10(1):9–20. Google Scholar
  102. Winzeler, R.. 1986, Ecology. Culture. Social Organization and State Formation in Southeast Asia. Current Anthropology 17:623–640.Google Scholar
  103. Wolters, O. W., 1971. The Fall of Srivijaya in Malay History. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  104. Yamada, L., 1997, Tropical Rain Forests of Southeast Asia:A Forest Fcohrgist’s View. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.Google Scholar
  105. Zaide, G. (ed, and trans.). 1990. Documentary Sources gjPhilippine history. Vol. 1. National Bookstore. Manila.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura Lee Junker
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations