Research has shown that personality-trait consistency is more common than personality-trait change and that when personality-trait change occurs, it is seldom dramatic. This finding results in a theoretical dilemma, for trait theories provide no explanation for personality change. Alternatively, most theories of adult developmental focus on change but not change in personality traits. To address this theoretical oversight, we first describe the mechanisms that promote personality continuity, such as the environment, genetic factors, psychological functioning, and person-environment transactions. Then we describe the counterpart to continuity, the mechanisms that facilitate personality change, such as responding to contingencies, observational learning, learning generalization, and learning from others’ descriptions of ourselves. We argue that identity processes can explain both the mechanisms of continuity and change and form the basis for a theory that explains the empirical findings on personality-trait development over the life course. Specifically, we make the case that the development of a strong identity and certain facets of identity structure, such as identity achievement and certainty, are positively related to many of the mechanisms that promote personality continuity. Furthermore, we argue that one unintentional consequence of identity development is to put oneself into contexts that promote personality change, such as new roles or a different circle of friends.
Over the last several decades, the topic of personality-trait development has led a quixotic existence that paralleled the fortunes of the field of personality psychology in general. With Mischel’s (1968) behaviorist critique of traits, the study of personality-trait development was left focused on social and environmental causes of both consistency and change. It was common in the late 1960s and early 1970s for authors to assume that traits were not consistent and, if they were, to attribute all of the consistency to environmental consistency (e.g., Nesselroade & Baltes, 1974). In the ensuing years, numerous longitudinal studies of personality yielded impressive evidence for the continuity of personality, and the field moved rapidly past the moderate position that there is both continuity and change in traits in adulthood (e.g., Kogan, 1990), to the extreme position that personality traits become “fixed” in young adulthood and remain unchanging thereafter (McCrae & Costa, 1994). This “strong stability” position precludes the idea that personality traits continue to develop in adulthood and, if accepted, effectively preempts the study of adult personality-trait development altogether.
Neither the extreme environmental argument nor the strong stability argument is justified given the empirical evidence. For example, despite the impression given by Mischel’s (1968) critique of personality traits and the ensuing person-situation debate (Kenrick & Funder, 1988), the evidence for the consistency of personality traits across time was always compelling. As long ago as 1941, Crook compiled data from six longitudinal studies showing that trait consistency averaged above.80 over several weeks and dropped to around.50 after six and a half years. Subsequent reviews using anywhere from 20 to 152 longitudinal studies of personality consistency have replicated Crook’s findings (Conley, 1984; Roberts & DelVecchio, 2000; Schuerger, Zarrella, & Hotz, 1989). Studies of the longitudinal consistency of traits also have shown that one of the most profound moderators of consistency is the age of the sample being studied (Caspi & Roberts, 1999; Finn, 1986; Roberts, Helson, & Klohnen, 2002). For example, in a review of 152 longitudinal studies, Roberts and DelVecchio (2000) showed that estimates of personality consistency (unadjusted for measurement error) increased from.31 in childhood, to.54 during the college-age period, to.64 at age 30, and then reached a plateau near.74 between ages 50 and 70 (over an average span of seven years).
Complementing the robust evidence for the relatively enduring nature of personality traits is the evidence for change in personality continuing well past young adulthood. Studies that examine change in personality traits find an increase or decrease in mean levels across most age periods (Dudek & Hall, 1991; Field & Millsap, 1991; Finn, 1986; Helson & Moane, 1987; Leon, Gillum, Gillum, & Gouze, 1979; Nilsson & Persson, 1984; Roberts, Helson, & Klohnen, 2002; Stevens & Truss, 1985). Furthermore, individual differences in personality-trait change exist at most ages (Jones & Meredith, 1996) and are related to life experiences in young adulthood (Pals, 1999), midlife (Roberts, 1997; Roberts & Chapman, 2000), and old age (Tower & Kasl, 1996). It should be noted that the effect sizes associated with trait consistency usually exceed.50, while the effect sizes for mean-level change and individual differences in change are much smaller in magnitude.
The picture that emerges from the longitudinal evidence for personality development leads to several conclusions. First, personality traits are highly consistent compared to other psychological constructs and are exceeded in consistency only by measures of cognitive ability (e.g., Conley, 1984). Second, personality consistency increases with age and yet may never reach a level high enough to indicate that personality traits stop changing. Third, according to mean-level and individual-difference approaches, personality change can and does occur even into old age. The picture one draws from the empirical data seems eminently reasonable: personality traits increase in consistency as people age, reaching levels that are quite high but not so high as to rule out the possibility or reality of meaningful shifts in traits over time.
Unfortunately, this temperate perspective on personality-trait development across the life course is not captured well in the existing theories of personality and adult development. In his review of personality and aging, Kogan (1990) highlighted three theoretical approaches to personality development. The first model is the classical psychometric theory or trait model of personality development (see also Conley, 1985). According to this perspective, traits remain so stable in adulthood that they are essentially “temperaments” and are impervious to the influence of the environment (e.g., McCrae & Costa, 1994; McCrae et al., 2000). The second model, termed the contextual model (Lewis, 1999), reflects the perspective that personality traits are shaped by environmental contingencies often contained within social roles (Brim, 1965). This perspective emphasizes the flux and change of personality and can only assume that personality consistency results from the consistency of social environments—a relatively weak and primarily untested argument. The third model is centered on the stage theories of Erikson (1950) and Levinson (1986), both of whom emphasize the change and emergence of specific life tasks and associated crises at different ages. This perspective essentially ignores personality-trait development. Taken separately, each of these three perspectives on personality development is lacking in some fundamental way. Classical psychometric trait theories beg the question of developmental process by defining personality as only that component of human nature that does not change—in our opinion a small and possibly uninteresting portion of human nature. Contextual models choose to ignore the genetic and psychological mechanisms that promote continuity and provide often overly optimistic perspectives on the mutability of personality (see also Cloninger, this volume). The stage models of adult development focus on important topics—the development of social roles and identity—but fail to incorporate these ideas with the prevailing evidence that differences in personality exist and are stable despite or because of development of social roles and identity structures.
We would add the lifespan development approach as a fourth model, which proposes a dialectic between consistency and change over the life course. The lifespan perspective comes closest to approximating the empirical picture of personality-trait development in that it specifies quite clearly that people are open systems and that they exhibit both continuity and change in personality throughout the life course (see also Lerner, Dowling, & Roth, this volume). Furthermore, according to the lifespan model, the effects of psychological, social, and cultural factors diminish as people grow older, often as a result of selection, optimization, and compensation processes (Baltes, Lindenberger, & Staudinger, 1999; see also Smith, this volume).
In the present chapter, we seek to expand on the lifespan model and set down the central tenets of the cumulative continuity model of personality development. Unlike previous conceptualizations of personality development, the cumulative continuity model attempts to integrate the findings of empirical research on the development of personality traits with the theoretical and empirical models derived from identity research in an attempt to explain the patterns of personality-trait continuity and change across the life course. In this effort, we attempt to integrate personality-trait development and identity development with perspectives derived from lifespan models (Baltes, Lindenberger, & Staudinger, 1999; Brandtstädter & Greve, 1994).
We begin our argument under the assumption that the empirical data to date are accurate. That is, personality traits increase in consistency with age, are mostly consistent in adulthood, and yet retain the capacity for change throughout the adult life course. If one accepts these data, several questions arise: First, why are personality traits consistent? We can no longer simply assume, as is done in the classical psychometric model, that personality traits are stable and that stability needs no explanation (Nesselroade & Featherman, 1997). In the first section below, we address the mechanisms that promote continuity in personality traits. The second question that arises is, what are the mechanisms that facilitate personality-trait change in adulthood? We address this question in the second section. Third, why do personality traits change less as people age and yet still retain some plasticity? In the last section, we answer this question by putting forward the argument that identity development and structures of identity mediate between personality traits and the mechanisms of change and continuity and that the mediating role of identity helps to explain, in part, the patterns of continuity and change in personality traits across the life course.
- Personality Trait
- Personality Development
- Identity Development
- Personality Change
- Social Information Processing
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use onlyLearn about institutional subscriptions
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
Allport, G. W. (1961). Pattern and growth in personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Alwin, D. R, Cohen, R. L., & Newcomb, T. M. (1991). Political attitudes over the life span: The Bennington women after fifty years. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Andersen, S. M., & Baum, A. (1994). Transference in interpersonal relations: Inferences and affect based on significant-other representations. Journal of Personality, 62, 459–497.
Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469–480.
Asendorpf, J. B., & Van Aken, M. A. G. (1991). Correlates of the temporal consistency of personality patterns in childhood. Journal of Personality, 59, 689–703.
Asendorpf, J. B., & Wilpers, S. (1998). Personality effects on social relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1531–1544.
Baltes, P. B. (1997). On the incomplete architecture of human ontogeny. American Psychologist, 52, 366–380.
Baltes, P. B., & Baltes, M. M. (1990). Psychological perspectives on successful aging: The model of selective optimisation with compensation. In P. B. Baltes & M. M. Baltes (Eds.), Successful aging: Perspectives from the behavioural sciences (pp. 1–34). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Baltes, P. B., Lindenberger, U., & Staudinger, U. M. (1999). Life-span theory in developmental psychology. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (5th ed., Vol. 1, pp. 1029–1143). New York: Wiley.
Bandura, A. (1965). Influence of models’ reinforcement contingencies on the acquisition of imitative response. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 589–595.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Baumeister, R. F. (1997). Identity, self-concept, and self-esteem: The self lost and found. In R. Hogan, J. Johnson, & S. Briggs (Eds.), Handbook of personality psychology (pp. 681–711). San Diego: Academic Press.
Baumeister, R. E, Dale, K., & Sommer, K. L. (1998). Freudian defense mechanisms and empirical findings in modern social psychology: Reaction formation, projection, displacement, undoing, isolation, sublimation, and denial. Journal of Personality, 66, 1081–1124.
Baumgardner, A. (1990). To know oneself is to like oneself: Self-certainty and self-affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 1062–1072.
Bell, R. Q., & Chapman, M. (1986). Child effects in studies using experimental or brief longitudinal approaches to socialization. Developmental Psychology, 22, 595–603.
Berzonsky, M. D. (1993). Identity style, gender, and social-cognitive reasoning. Journal of Adolescent Research, 8, 289–296.
Berzonsky, M. D., & Neimeyer, G. J. (1994). Ego identity status and identity processing orientation: The moderating role of commitment. Journal of Research in Personality, 28, 425–435.
Block, J. (1982). Assimilation, accommodation, and the dynamics of personality development. Child Development, 53, 281–295.
Blumer, H. (1969). Symbolic interactionism: Perspective and method. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall (pp. 282–299). Reprinted by permission.
Borkenau, P., & Liebler, A. (1995). Observable attributes as manifestations and cues of personality and intelligence. Journal of Personality, 63, 1–25.
Bouchard, T. J., Jr. (1995). Longitudinal studies of personality and intelligence: A behavior genetic and evolutionary psychology perspective. In D. Saklofske & M. Zaidner (Eds.), International handbook of personality and intelligence. New York: Plenum.
Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss. New York: Basic Books.
Brandtstädter, J. (1992). Person control over development: Some developmental implications of self-efficacy. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Self-efficacy: Thought control of action (pp. 127–145). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.
Brandtstädter, J., & Greve, W. (1994). The aging self: Stabilizing and protective processes. Developmental Review, 14, 52–80.
Brim, O. G. (1965). Adult socialization. In J. A. Clausen (Ed.), Socialization and society (pp. 182–226). Boston: Little Brown.
Bruch, M. A., Kaflowitz, N. G., & Berger, P. L. (1988). Self-schema for assertiveness: Extending the validity of the self-schema construct. Journal of Research in Personality, 22, 424–444.
Burke, P. J. (1991). Identity processes and social stress. American Sociological Review, 56, 836–849.
Buss, D. M. (1984). Toward a psychology of person-environment correspondence: The role of spouse selection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 361–377.
Buss, D. M. (1987). Selection, evocation, and manipulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 1214–1221.
Cairns, R. B., & Cairns, B. D. (1994). Lifelines and risks: Pathways of youth in our time. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cairns, R. B., & Hood, K. E. (1983). Continuity in social development: A comparative perspective on individual difference prediction. In P. B. Baltes & O. G. Brim Jr. (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (pp. 301–358). New York: Academic Press.
Campbell, J. D. (1990). Self-esteem and clarity of the self-concept. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 538–549.
Caspi, A., & Herbener, E. S. (1990). Continuity and change: Assortative marriage and the consistency of personality in adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 250–258.
Caspi, A., & Roberts, B. W. (1999). Personality change and continuity across the life course. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality theory and research (Vol. 2, pp. 300–326). New York: Guilford Press.
Chao, G. T. (1997). Organizational socialization: Mentoring phases and outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 51, 15–28.
Chao, G. T, Walz, M., & Gardner, D. (1992). Formal and informal mentorships: A comparison on mentoring functions and contrast with non-mentored counterparts. Personnel Psychology, 45, 619–636.
Clausen, J. A. (1993). American lives: Looking back at the children of the Great Depression. New York: Free Press.
Clore, G. L., Schwartz, N., & Conway, M. (1994). Affective causes and consequences of social information processing. In R. S. Wyer & T. K. Srull (Eds.), Handbook of social cognition (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 323–417). Hillsdale, NJ: LEA.
Conley, J. J. (1984). The hierarchy of consistency: A review and model of longitudinal findings on adult individual differences in intelligence, personality, and self-opinion. Personality and Individual Differences, 5, 11–26.
Conley, J. J. (1985). A personality theory of adulthood and aging. In R. T. Hogan (Ed.), Perspectives in personality (Vol. 1, pp. 81–115). Greenwich Conn: JAI Press.
Cook, W. L., Kenny, D. A., & Goldstein, M. J. (1991). Parental affective style risk and the family system: A social relations model analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 492–501.
Cramer, P. (1998). Defensiveness and defense mechanisms. Journal of Personality, 66, 879–894.
Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformation of social information-processing mechanisms in children’s social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74–101.
Crook, M. N. (1941). Retest correlations in neuroticism. Journal of General Psychology, 24, 173–182.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1990). A motivational approach to self: Integration in personality. In R. A. Dienstbier (Ed.), Perspectives on motivation: Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (pp. 237–288). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Dishion, T. J., Patterson, G. R., Stoolmiller, M, & Skinner, M. L. (1991). Family, school, and behavioral antecedents to early adolescent involvement with antisocial peers. Developmental Psychology, 27, 172–180.
Dodge, K. A., & Tomlin, A. M. (1987). Utilization of self-schemas as mechanisms of interpretational bias in aggressive children. Social Cognition, 5, 280–300.
Dudek, S. Z., & Hall, W. B. (1991). Personality consistency: Eminent architects 25 years later. Creativity Research Journal, 4, 213–231.
Elder, G. H. (1985). Perspectives on the life course. In G. Elder Jr. (Ed.), Life course dynamics (pp. 23–49). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Ennett, S. T., & Bauman, K. E. (1994). The contribution of influence and selection to adolescent peer group homogeneity: The case of adolescent cigarette smoking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 653-663.
Epstein, S. (1991). Cognitive-experiential self theory: Implications for developmental psychology. In M. R. Gunnar & L. A. Sroufe (Eds.), Self processes and development: The Minnesota symposia on child development (pp. 79–123). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Epstein, E., & Guttman, R. (1984). Mate selection in man: Evidence, theory and outcome. Social Biology, 31, 243–278.
Erikson, E. H. (1950). Childhood and society. New York: Norton.
Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
Farmer, R., & Nelson-Gray, R. O. (1990). Personality disorders and depression: Hypothetical relations, empirical findings and methodological considerations. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 453–476.
Fekken, C. G., & Holden, R. R. (1992). Response latency evidence for viewing personality traits as schema indicators. Journal of Research in Personality, 26, 103–120.
Field, D., & Millsap, R. E. (1991). Personality in advanced old age: Continuity or change? Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 46, 299–308.
Finn, S. E. (1986). Stability of personality self-ratings over 30 years: Evidence for an age/cohort interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 813–818.
Fiske, S. T, & Taylor, S. E. (1991). Social cognition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Gerlsma, C, Emmelkamp, P. M., & Arrindell, W. A. (1990). Anxiety, depression, and perception of early parenting: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 251–277.
Graziano, W. G., Jensen-Campell, L. A., & Hair, E. C. (1996). Perceiving interpersonal conflict and reacting to it: The case for agreeableness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 820–835.
Gurin, P., & Brim, O. G. (1984). Change in self in adulthood: The example of sense of control. In P. B. Baltes & O. G. Brim (Eds.), Lifespan development and behavior (Vol. 6, pp. 282–334). New York: Academic Press.
Hanson, R. A. (1975). Consistency and stability of home environmental measures related to IQ. Child Development, 46, 470–480.
Helson, R., & Moane, G. (1987). Personality change in women from college to midlife. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 176–186.
Helson, R., & Srivastava, S. (2001). Three paths of adult development: Conservers, seekers, and achievers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 995–1010.
Helson, R., Stewart, A. J., & Ostrove, J. (1995). Identity in three cohorts of midlife women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 544–557.
Hochwaelder, J. (1996). Effects of self-schema on assumptions about and processing of schema-consistent traits of other persons. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 82, 1267–1278.
Hogan, R. T. & Roberts, B. W. (2000). A socioanalytic perspective on person/environment interaction. In W. B. Walsh, K. H. Craik, & R. H. Price (Eds.), New directions in person-environment psychology (pp. 1–24). Mahway, NJ: Erlbaum.
Hogan, R., & Roberts, B. W. (in press). A socioanalytic model of maturity. Journal of Career Assessment.
Holland, J. L. (1962). Some explorations of a theory of vocational choice: I. One- and two-year longitudinal studies. Psychological Monographs, 76.
Holland, J. L. (1996). Making vocational choices. Odessa, FL: PAR.
Horowitz, M. J., Milbrath, C, Jordan, D. S., Stinson, C. H., Ewert, M., Redington, D. J., et al. (1994). Expressive and defensive behavior during discourse on unresolved topics: A single case study of pathological grief. Journal of Personality, 62, 527–563.
Howard, A., & Bray, D. (1989). Managerial lives in transition. New York: Guildford Press.
Ickes, W., Snyder, M. S. & Garcia, S. (1997). Personality influences on the choice of situations. In R. Hogan, J. Johnson, & S. Briggs (Eds.), Handbook of personality psychology (pp. 165–195). San Diego: Academic Press.
Jones, C. J., & Meredith, W. (1996). Patterns of personality change across the life span. Psychology and Aging, 11, 51–65.
Kagan, J. (1994). Galen’s prophecy: Temperament in human nature. New York: Basic Books.
Kagan, J. (1997). Biology and the child. In W. Damon & N. Eisenberg (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology. New York: Wiley.
Kandel, D. B., Davies, M, & Baydar, N. (1990). The creation of interpersonal contexts: Homophily in dyadic relationships in adolescence and young adulthood. In L. N. Robins & M. R. Rutter (Eds.), Straight and devious pathways to adulthood (pp. 221–241). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Keltner, D. (1996). Facial expressions of emotion and personality. In C. Magai & S. H. McFadden (Eds.), Handbook of emotion, adult development, and aging (pp. 385–401). San Diego: Academic Press.
Kenrick, D. T., & Funder, D. C. (1988). Profiting from controversy: Lessons from the person-situation debate. American Psychologist, 43, 23–34.
Kiecolt, K. J. (1994). Stress and the decision to change oneself: A theoretical model. Social Psychology Quarterly, 57, 49–63.
Klohnen, E. C. (1996). Conceptual analysis and measurement of the construct of ego-resiliency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 1067–1079.
Kochanska, G. (1991). Socialization and temperament in the development of guilt and conscience. Child Development, 62, 1379–1392.
Kochanska, G. (1997). Multiple pathways to conscience for children with different temperaments: From toddlerhood to age five. Developmental Psychology, 33, 228–240.
Kogan, N. (1990). Personality and aging. In J. E. Birren & S. W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (pp. 330–346). San Diego: Academic Press.
Kohn, M. L., & Schooler, C. (1978). The reciprocal effects of the substantive complexity of work and intellectual flexibility: A longitudinal assessment. American Journal of Sociology, 84, 24–52.
Kohn, M. L., & Schooler, C. (1983). Work and personality: An inquiry into social stratification. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Kram, K. E. (1985). Mentoring alternatives: The role of peer relationships in career development. Academy of Management Journal, 28, 110–132.
Labouvie-Vief, G., Chiodo, L. M., Goguen, L. A., Diehl, M., & Orwoll, L. (1995). Representations of self across the life span. Psychology and Aging, 10, 404–415.
Laub, J. H., Nagin, D. S., & Sampson, R. J. (1998). Trajectories of change in criminal offending: Good marriages and the desistance process. American Sociological Review, 63, 225–238.
Leon, G. R., Gillum, B., Gillum, R., & Gouze, M. (1979). Personality stability and change over a 30-year period: Middle age to old age. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 517–524.
Levinson, D. J. (1986). A conception of adult development. American Psychologist, 41, 3–13.
Lewis, M. (1999). On the development of personality. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (2nd ed., pp. 327–346).
Littwin, S. (1986). The postponed generation: Why America’s grown-up kids are growing up later. New York: Morrow.
Lytton, H. (1990). Child and parent effects in boys’ conduct disorder: A reinterpretation. Developmental Psychology, 26, 683–697.
Marcia, J. E. (1980). Identity in adolescence. In J. Adelson (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 159–187). New York: Wiley.
Markus, H., & Nurius, P. (1986). Possible selves. American Psychologist, 41, 954–969.
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1994). The stability of personality: Observation and evaluations. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 3, 173–175.
McCrae, R. R, Costa, P. T., Jr, Ostendorf, E, Angleitner, A., Hrebickova, M, Avia, M. D., et al. (2000). Nature over nurture: Temperament, personality, and life span development. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 173–186.
McGue, M., Bacon, S., & Lykken, D. T. (1993). Personality stability and change in early adulthood: A behavioral genetic analysis. Developmental Psychology, 29, 96–109.
McNally, S., Eisenberg, S., & Harris, J. (1991). Consistency and change in maternal child-rearing practices and values: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 62, 190–198.
Messer, S. B., & Warren, S. (1990). Personality change and psychotherapy. In L. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of personality theory and research. New York: Guildford Press.
Mischel, W. (1968). Personality and assessment. New York: Wiley.
Modell, J. (1989). Into one’s own: From youth to adulthood in the United States 1920–1975. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Nesselroade, J. R., & Bakes, P. B. (1974). Adolescent personality development and historical change: 1970–1972. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 39, 1–74.
Nesselroade, J. R., & Featherman, D. L. (1997) Establishing a reference frame against which to chart age-related changes. In M. A. Hardy (Ed.), Studying aging and social change: Conceptual and methodological issues. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Nillson, L. V., & Persson, B. (1984). Personality changes in the aged. Acta Psychiatrica Scandanavia, 69, 182–189.
Norem, J. K. (1998). Why should we lower our defenses about defense mechanisms? Journal of Personality, 66, 895–917.
O’Connor, T. G., Deater-Deckard, K., Fulker, D., Rutter, M., & Plomin, R. (1998). Genotype-environment correlations in late childhood and early adolescence: Antisocial behavioral problems in coercive parenting. Developmental Psychology, 34, 970–981.
Pals, J. L. (1999). Identity consolidation in early adulthood: Relations with ego-resiliency, the context of marriage, and personality change. Journal of Personality, 67, 295–329.
Patterson, G. R., & Bank, L. (1989). Some amplifying mechanisms for pathologic processes in families. In M. R. Gunnar & E. Thelen (Eds.), Systems and development: The Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology (Vol. 22, pp. 167–209). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Pedersen, N. L. (1993). Genetic and environmental continuity and change in personality. In T. J. Bouchard Jr. & P. Propping (Eds.), Twins as a tool of behavioural genetics (pp. 147–162). New York: Wiley.
Pedersen, N. L., & Reynolds, C. A. (1998). Stability and change in adult personality: Genetic and environmental components. European Journal of Personality, 12, 365–386.
Pfeffer, J. (1995). A political perspective on careers: Interests, networks, and environments. In M. B. Arthur, D. T. Hall, & B. S. Lawrence (Eds.), Handbook of career theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pianta, R. C, Sroufe, L. A., & Egeland, B. (1989). Continuity and discontinuity in maternal sensitivity at 6, 24, and 42 months in a high-risk sample. Child Development, 60, 481–487.
Plomin, R., & Caspi, A. (1999). Behavioral genetics and personality. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Ed.), Handbook of personality theory and research (Vol. 2, pp. 251–276). New York: Guilford Press.
Plomin, R., Kagan, J., Emde, R. N., Reznick, J. S., Braugart, J. M., Robinson, J., et al. (1993). Genetic change and continuity from 14 to 20 months: The Mac Arthur Longitudinal Twin Study. Child Development, 64, 1354–1376.
Pulkkinen, L., & Kokko, K. (2000). Identity development in adulthood: A longitudinal study. Journal of Research in Personality, 34, 445–470.
Quiggle, N. L., Garber, J., Panak, W. F., & Dodge, K. A. (1992). Social information processing in aggressive and depressed children. Child Development, 63, 1305–1320.
Rabiner, D. L., Lenhart, L., & Lochman, J. E. (1990). Automatic versus reflective social problem solving in relation to children’s sociometric status. Developmental Psychology, 26, 1010–1016.
Riley, S., & Wrench, D. (1985). Mentoring among women lawyers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 15, 374–386.
Roberts, B. W. (1997). Plaster or plasticity: Are work experiences associated with personality change in women? Journal of Personality, 65, 205–232.
Roberts, B. W., Caspi, A, & Moffitt, T. (2000). The kids are alright: Growth and stability in personality development from adolescence to adulthood. Manuscript, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
Roberts, B. W., & Chapman, C. (2000). Change in dispositional well-being and its relation to role quality: A 30-year longitudinal study. Journal of Research in Personality, 34, 26–41.
Roberts, B. W., & DelVecchio, W. F. (2000). The rank-order consistency of personality from childhood to old age: A quantitative review of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 3–25.
Roberts, B. W., & Donahue, E. M. (1994). One personality, multiple selves: Integrating personality and social roles. Journal of Personality. 62, 201–218.
Roberts, B. W., Helson, R., & Klohnen, E. C. (2002). Personality development and growth in women across 30 years: Three perspectives. Journal of Personality, 70, 79–102.
Roberts, B. W., & Robins, R. W. (2000a). Broad dispositions, broad aspirations: The intersection of the Big Five dimensions and major life goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 1284–1296.
Roberts, B. W., & Robins, R. W. (2000b). A longitudinal study of person-environment fit and personality development. Manuscript, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
Roberts, G. C, Block, J. H., & Block, J. (1984). Continuity and change in parents’ child rearing practices. Child Development, 55, 586–597.
Ronka, A., & Pulkkinen, L. (1995). Accumulation of problems in social functioning in young adulthood: A developmental approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 381–391.
Rosenberg, S., & Gara, M. A. (1985). The multiplicity of personal identity. In P. Shaver (Ed.), Self situations, and social behavior: Review of personality and social psychology (Vol. 6, pp. 87–113). Beverly Hills,CA: Sage.
Rusting, C. L. (1998). Personality, mood, and cognitive processing of emotional information: Three conceptual frameworks. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 165–196.
Sameroff, A. J. (1995). General systems theories and developmental psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (pp. 659–695). New York: Wiley.
Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., Baldwin, A., & Baldwin, C. (1993). Stability of intelligence from preschool to adolescence: The influence of social and family risk factors. Child evelopment, 64, 80–97.
Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1990). Crime and deviance over the life course: The salience of adult social bonds. American Sociological Review, 55, 609–627.
Sarbin, T. R. (1964). Role theoretical interpretation of psychological change. In P. Worchel & D. Byrne (Eds.), Personality change (pp. 176–219). New York: Wiley.
Sarbin, T. R., & Jones, D. S. (1955). The assessment of role expectations in the selection of supervisory personnel. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 15, 236–239.
Schuerger, J. M, Zarrella, K. L., & Hotz, A. S. (1989). Factors that influence the temporal stability of personality by questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 777–783.
Snyder, M. S. & Ickes, W. (1985). Personality and social behavior. In E. Aronson & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (pp. 248–305). New York: Random House.
Stevens, D. P., & Truss, C. V. (1985). Stability and change in adult personality over 12 and 20 years. Developmental Psychology, 21, 568–584.
Stewart, A. J., & Ostrove, J. M. (1998). Women’s personality in middle age: Gender, history, and midcourse corrections. American Psychologist, 53, 1185–1194.
Stewart, A. J., Ostrove, J. M., & Helson, R. (2001). Middle aging in women: Patterns of personality change from the thirties to the fifties. Journal of Adult Development, 8, 23–37.
Stryker, S. (1987). Identity theory: Developments and extensions. In K. Yardley & T. Honess (Eds.), Self and identity: Psychosocial perspectives (pp. 89–103). Chichester, UK: Wiley.
Stryker, S., & Statham, A. (1985). Symbolic interaction role theory. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (pp. 311–378). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Swann, W. B., Stein-Seroussi, A., & McNulty, S. E. (1992). Outcasts in a white-lie society: The enigmatic worlds of people with negative self-conceptions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 618–624.
Swann, W. B., Jr. (1987). Identity negotiation: Where two roads meet. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 1038–1051.
Thomas, W. I., & Thomas, D. (1928). The child in America. New York: Knopf.
Tomkins, S. S. (1979). Script theory: Differential magnification of affects. In H. E. Howe Jr. & R. A. Dienstbier (Eds.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (pp. 201–236). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Tower, R. B., & Kasl, S. V. (1996). Depressive symptoms across older spouses: Longitudinal influences. Psychology and Aging, 11, 683–697.
Trachtenberg, S., & Viken, R. J. (1994). Aggressive boys in the classroom: Biased attributions or shared perceptions? Child Development, 65, 829–835.
Trope, Y, & Ben-Yair, E. (1982). Task construction and persistence as a means for self-assessment of abilities. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 637–645.
Vandewater, E. A., Ostrove, J. M., & Stewart, A. J. (1997). Predicting women’s well-being in midlife: The importance of personality development and social role involvements. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1147–1160.
Wachtel, P. L. (1994). Cyclical processes in personality and psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 51–54.
Warren, J. R., & Hauser, R. M. (1997). Social stratification across three generations: New evidence from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. American Sociological Review, 62, 561–572.
Waterman, A. S. (1984). Identity formation: Discovery or creation? Journal of Early Adolescence, 4, 329–341.
Waterman, A. S., & Archer, S. L. (1990). A life-span perspective on identity formation: Developments in form, function, and process. In P. B. Baltes, D. L. Featherman, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (Vol. 10, pp. 30–59). Hillsdale, NJ: LEA.
Westen, D. (1991). Social cognition and object relations. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 429–455.
Whitbourne, S. K. (1996). Psychosocial perspectives on emotions: The role of identity in the aging process. In C. Magai & S. H. McFadden (Eds.), Handbook of emotion, adult development and aging San Diego: Academic Press.
Wiggins, J. S., & Trobst, K. K. (1997). When is a circumplex an “interpersonal cirumplex”? The case of supportive actions. In R. Plutchik & R. H. Conte (Eds.), Circumplex models of personality and emotions (pp. 57–80). Washington, DC: APA.
Editors and Affiliations
© 2003 Springer Science+Business Media New York
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Roberts, B.W., Caspi, A. (2003). The Cumulative Continuity Model of Personality Development: Striking a Balance Between Continuity and Change in Personality Traits across the Life Course. In: Staudinger, U.M., Lindenberger, U. (eds) Understanding Human Development. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-0357-6_9
Publisher Name: Springer, Boston, MA
Print ISBN: 978-1-4020-7383-0
Online ISBN: 978-1-4615-0357-6
eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive