Ten years after the discovery of giant magnetoresistance (GMR), commercialization of the technology is evidenced by product introductions in magnetic field sensors and read heads for hard drives. This comparatively short introduction time was facilitated by the prior existence of similar products using anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and other materials. In 1995, the first GMR magnetic field sensors were sold by Nonvolatile Electronics, Inc. (NVE), and in 1997, NVE introduced a line of GMR sensors, where GMR multilayer materials were integrated on-chip with silicon integrated circuits. Siemens introduced a GMR magnetic field sensor in 1997.
KeywordsPermeability Nickel Anisotropy Torque GaAs
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