Magnetic Sensors

  • Jim Daughton
  • Carl Smith


Ten years after the discovery of giant magnetoresistance (GMR), commercialization of the technology is evidenced by product introductions in magnetic field sensors and read heads for hard drives. This comparatively short introduction time was facilitated by the prior existence of similar products using anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and other materials. In 1995, the first GMR magnetic field sensors were sold by Nonvolatile Electronics, Inc. (NVE), and in 1997, NVE introduced a line of GMR sensors, where GMR multilayer materials were integrated on-chip with silicon integrated circuits. Siemens introduced a GMR magnetic field sensor in 1997.


Sensor Element Magnetic Sensor Wheatstone Bridge Spin Valve Hall Sensor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    J. Fraden, AIP Handbook of Modern Sensors: Physics Designs and Applications (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1993).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. M. Sze (Ed.) Semiconductor Sensors (Wiley, New York, 1994).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Lenz, Magnetic sensors, Proc. IEEE 78, 973–989 (1990).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Heremans, Solid state magnetic field sensors and applications, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 26, 1149–1168 (1993).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. J. Caruso, T. Bratland, C. H. Smith, and R. Schneider, A new perspective on magnetic field sensing, Proceedings Sensors Expo San Jose (Helmers, Peterborough, NH, 1998) pp. 351–370.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. R. Krahn, A Brief study of magnetic sensors, Proceedings Sensors Expo Boston (Helmers, Peterborough, NH, 1995) pp. 75–82.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. Emerald, Low duty cycle operation of Hall effect sensors for circuit power conservation, Sensors, Advenstar Communications, Inc., Duluth, MN, 15, 38 (March 1998).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Magnetic Sensors International Data Book 1995 (Siemans Aktiengesellschaft, Munich).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. Daughton, P. Bade, M. Jenson, and M. Rahmati, IEEE Trans. Magn. 28, 2488 (1992).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    B. Dieny, V. Speriosu, S. Metin, S. Parkin, B. Guerney, P. Baumgart, and D. Wilhoit, J. Appl Phys. 69,4774(1991).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Berkowitz, J. Mitchell, M. Carey, A. Young, S. Zhang, F. Spada, F. Parker, A. Hutten, and G. Thomas, J. Appl Phys. 73, 5320 (1993).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. S. Moodera, L. R. Kinder, T. M. Wong, and R. Meservey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3273 (1995).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Parkin, A. Li, and D. Smith, App. Phys. Lett. 58, 2710 (1991).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    L. Chen, T. Tiefel, S. Jin, T. Palstra, R. Ramesh, and C. Kwon, IEEE Trans. Magn. 32, 4692 (1996).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    H. Yoda, H. Iwasaki, T. Kobayashi, A. Tsutai, and M. Sahashi, IEEE Trans. Magn. 32, 3363 (1996).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Mao, N. Amin, and E. Murdock, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 6807 (1998).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Giant Magneto Resistive Position Sensor, Preliminary Data S4, (Seimens Aktiengesellschaft, Munich, 1998).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    K. F. Anderson, The Constant Current Loop: A New Paradigm for Resistance Signal Conditioning, NASA TM-104260, October, 1992.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. L. Brown, High sensitivity magnetic field sensor using GMR materials with integrated electronics, Proceedings of the Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Seattle, WA, January, 1995.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    T. M. Herman, W. C. Black and S. Hui, Magnetically coupled linear isolator, IEEE Trans. Magn. 33, 4029–4031 (1997).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jim Daughton
    • 1
  • Carl Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.NVE CorporationEden PrairieUSA

Personalised recommendations