Expression of Angiopoietin-1 and -2 in the Rat Brain During Chronic Hypoxia and De-Adaptation

  • Paola Pichiule
  • Joseph C. LaManna
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 510)


Angiogenesis is defined as the formation of new vascular networks from pre-existing blood vessels. The mature vascular network of the adult is relatively stable and vascular endothelial cells exist in a differentiated, quiescent state and rarely proliferate. Angiogenic remodeling occurs only in certain situations, hypoxia and ischemia being primary inducers of angiogenesis. In the brain, angiogenesis is a critical compensatory strategy for brain adaptation to chronic hypoxia, which presumably results in shorter intercapillary diffusional distances and improvement of tissue oxygenation. This adaptive response is reversible upon return to normoxia, although the mechanism controlling vascular regression is not known.


Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression Chronic Hypoxia Ang2 Expression Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Protein Expression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paola Pichiule
    • 1
  • Joseph C. LaManna
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyCase Western Reserve UniversityCleveland

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