Leptin and Hypothalamic Amenorrhea

  • Michelle P. Warren
  • Jennifer E. Dominguez

Abstract

Amenorrhea is characterized by the lack of regular menstrual periods. It may be classified as primary or secondary in nature. Primary amenorrhea is a delay in menarche beyond the age of 14, if no secondary sexual characteristics have developed, and beyond the age of 16, if secondary sexual characteristics have developed (Sakala, 1997). Secondary amenorrhea is diagnosed when menstruation has been absent for more than 3 months, if menses were previously regular; or 6 months, if menses were irregular (Constantini and Warren, 1994). The causes of amenorrhea among premenopausal women are numerous, among them are premature ovarian failure, past contraceptive use, androgen excess, intensive physical training, nutritional restriction, and stress.

Keywords

Obesity Dopamine Cortisol Testosterone Neurol 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michelle P. Warren
    • 1
  • Jennifer E. Dominguez
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Medicine and Obstetrics and GynecologyColumbia UniversityUSA

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