Nonverbal Assessment of Academic Achievement with Special Populations

  • Craig L. Frisby


Much of what transpires in the day-to-day activities of schools and classrooms involves the understanding and expression of ideas transmitted through the medium of spoken and written language. Academic instruction in nearly all content areas is often delivered orally or in a written format, and learners must communicate skills and competencies in the same manner. In order to be academically successful, students must demonstrate the ability to understand concepts through the medium of listening and reading, and must produce acceptable products using verbal and writing skills.


Cerebral Palsy American Sign Language Deaf Child Academic Skill Receptive Vocabulary 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen, T. E. (1986). Patterns of academic achievement among hearing impaired students: 1974–1983. In A. N. Shildroth & M. A. Karchmer (Eds.), Deaf children in America(pp. 161–206). San Diego, CA: College-Hill Press.Google Scholar
  2. Alliance for Technology Access (2000). Computer and web resources for people with disabilities: A guide to exploring today’s assistive technology (3rd ed.). Alameda, CA: Hunter House.Google Scholar
  3. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Position Statement on Non-Speech Communication (1981). Asha, 23, 577–581.Google Scholar
  4. Aroor, S. R. (1992). Assessment of cerebral palsy. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 59, 159–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnett, A. J. (1982). Designing an assessment of the child with cerebral palsy. Psychology in the Schools, 19,160–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berninger, V., & Gans, B. M. (1986). Language profiles in nonspeaking individuals of normal intelligence with severe cerebral palsy.Augmentative and Alternative Communication 2,45–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bliss, C. K. (1978). Semantography (Blissymbolics): A simple system of 100 logical pictorial symbols, which can be operated and read like 1 + 2 = 3 in all languages. Sydney: Semantography (Blissymbolics) Publications.Google Scholar
  8. Borowitz, K. C. (2000). Different types of cerebral palsy. Retrieved from
  9. Braden, J. P. (1994). Deafness, deprivation, and IQ. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  10. Bradley-Johnson, S., & Evans, L. D. (1991) Psychoeducational assessment of hearing-impaired students: Infancy through high school.Austin, TX: PRO-ED.Google Scholar
  11. Brauer, B. A., Braden, J. P., Pollard, R. Q., & Hardy-Braz, S. T. (1998). Deaf and hard of hearing people. In J. S. Sandoval, C. L. Frisby, K. F. Geisinger, J. D. Scheuneman, & J. R. Grenier (Eds.), Test interpretation and diversity: Achieving equity in assessment (pp. 297–316). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Browder, D. M. (2001). Curriculum and assessment for students with moderate and severe disabilities. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  13. Bullis, M., Reiman, J., Davis, C., & Reid, C. (1997). National field testing of the “Mini” version of the Transition Competence Battery for Adolescents and Young Adults Who are Deaf. Journal of Special Education, 31(3), 347–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bullis, M., Reiman, J., Davis, C., & Thorkildsen, R. (1994). Examination of administration and response formats in the videodisc assessment of deaf adolescents’ transition skills. Exceptional Children, 61,158–173.Google Scholar
  15. Burgemeister, B. B., Blum, L. H., & Lorge, I. (1972). Columbia mental maturity scale (3rd ed.). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  16. Burns, E. (1998). Test accommodations for students with disabilities. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  17. Calderon, R., & Low, S. (1998). Early social-emotional, language, and academic development in children with hearing loss: Families with and without fathers. American Annals of the Deaf 143(3),225–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chaleff, C., & Toranzo, N. (2000). Helping our students meet the standards through test preparation classes. American Annals of the Deaf 145(1), 33–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Charrow, V., & Fletcher, J. D. (1974). English as a second language of deaf children. Developmental Psychology, 10, 463–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. DiFrancesca, S. (1972). Academic achievement test results of a national testing program for hearing-impaired students-United States, Spring 1971. Office for Demographic Studies, Gallaudet College.Google Scholar
  21. Frisby, C. (2001). Academic achievement. In L. A. Suzuki, J. G. Ponterotto, & P. J. Meller (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural assessment (2nd ed., pp. 541–568). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  22. Gallaudet Research Institute (1996a). Achievement testing of deaf and hard-of-hearing students: The 9th edition Stanford Achievement Test. Washington, DC: Gallaudet Research Institute.Google Scholar
  23. Gallaudet Research Institute (1996b). Stanford Achievement Test, 9th edition Screening procedures for deaf and hard-of-hearing students. Washington, DC: Gallaudet Research Institute.Google Scholar
  24. Gallaudet Research Institute (1996c). Stanford Achievement Test, 9th edition. Administration procedures for deaf and hard-of-hearing students. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University.Google Scholar
  25. Goossens, C. (1989). Aided communication intervention before assessment: A case study of a child with cerebral palsy. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 5(1), 14–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goossens, C., & Crain, S. (1986). Augmentative communication intervention resource. Chicago, IL: Don Johnston Developmental Equipment.Google Scholar
  27. Hammill, D. D., & Larsen, S. C. (1978). Test of Written Language (’YOWL). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.Google Scholar
  28. Holt, J. (1994). Classroom attributes and achievement test scores for deaf and hard of hearing students. American Annals of the Deaf. 139(4), 430–437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Holt, J. A., Traxler, C. B., & Allen, T. E. (1997). Interpreting the scores: A user’s guide to the 9th edition Stanford Achievement Test for educators of deaf and hard-of-hearing students. Washington, DC: Gallaudet Research Institute.Google Scholar
  30. King, T. W. (1999). Assistive technology: Essential human factors. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  31. Koppenhaver, D. A., Evans, D. A., & Yoder, D. E. (1991). Childhood reading and writing expe-riences of literate adults with severe speech and motor impairments. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 7(1), 20–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kretschmer, R. R., & Kretschmer, L. W. (1978). Language development and intervention in the hearing impaired. Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  33. Kucherawy, D. A., & Kucherawy, J. M. (1978). Pen and share it. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 13(3), 342–44.Google Scholar
  34. Leybaert, J., Content, A., & Alegria, J. (1987). The development of written word processing The case of deaf children. Workshop presentation, ISPL Congress, University of Kassel.Google Scholar
  35. Marschark, M. (1993). Psychological development of dear children. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Mayer-Johnson, R. (1984). The picture communication symbols. Solana Beach, CA: Mayer-Johnson.Google Scholar
  37. Mayer-Johnson, R. (1985). The picture communication symbols-Book II. Solana Beach, CA: Mayer-Johnson.Google Scholar
  38. Nagle, R. J., & Campbell, L. H. (1998). Cerebral palsy. In L. Phelps (Ed.), Health related disorders in children and adolescents (pp. 145–153). Washington, DC: APA Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. National Center for Health Statistics (1994). Data from the national health interview survey. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  40. Pierce, P. L., & McWilliam, P. J. (1993). Emerging literacy and children with severe speech and physical impairments (SSPI): Issues and possible intervention strategies. Topics in Language Disorders, 13(2), 47–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Reid, D. K., Hresko, W. P., Hammill, D. D., & Wiltshire, S. (1991). Test of Early Reading Ability-Deaf of Hard of Hearing (TERA-D/HH): Examiner’s manual. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.Google Scholar
  42. Reiman, J., & Bullis, M. (1993). Transition competence battery for deaf adolescents and young adults. Santa Monica, CA: James Stanfield.Google Scholar
  43. Salvia, J., & Ysseldyke, J. E. (1998). Assessment (7th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  44. Sandberg, A. D. (1998). Reading and spelling among nonvocal children with cerebral palsy: Influence of home and school literacy environment. Reading and writing: An interdisci-plinary journal, 10,23–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sandberg, A. D., & Hjelmquist, E. (1996). Phonologic awareness an literacy abilities in nonspeaking preschool children with cerebral palsy. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 12(3),pp. 138–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sappington, J., Reedy, S., Welch, R., & Hamilton, J. (1989). Validity of messages from quadriplegic persons with cerebral palsy. American Journal of Mental Retardation,94(1), 49–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Schmelter-Davis, L. (1984). Vocational evaluation of handicapped college students: Hearing, motor, and visually impaired (ISBN 0–916855–01–5). Lincroft, NJ: Brookdale Community College (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 264 390).Google Scholar
  48. Smith, A. K., Thurston, S., Light, J., Parnes, P., & O’Keefe, B. (1989). The form and use of written communication produced by physically disabled individuals using microcomputers. Augmentative and Alternative Communication,5(2), 115–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Traxler, C. B. (2000). The Stanford Achievement Test, 9th Edition: National norming and performance standards for deaf and hard-of-hearing students. Journal of Deaf Studiesrid Deaf Education, 5(4), 337–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Weiner, E. (1980). Diagnostic evaluation of writing skills. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 13 48–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. White, A., & Tischler, S. (1999). Receptive sign vocabulary tests: Tests of single word vocabulary or iconicity? American Annals of the Deaf 144(4), 334–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yoshinaga-Itano, C., & Downey, D. M. (1996). The psychoeducational characteristics of school-aged students in Colorado with educationally significant hearing losses. Volta Review, 98(1), 65–96.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Craig L. Frisby
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Educational, School, and Counseling PsychologyUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations