The Concept of Hemoglobin Equivalency of Perfluorochemical Emulsions

  • N. Simon Faithfull
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 530)


Perfluorochemical (PFC) emulsions have been in development as intravenous oxygen carriers for a number of years and many publications have dealt with their oxygen transport characteristics in both experimental models and in clinical trials. Though it has been stressed on numerous occasions that PFCs deliver oxygen to the tissues in very different ways to those by which Hemoglobin (Hb) releases oxygen (O2), no serious attempts have been made to correlate the oxygen delivery capacity of PFCs to those of Hb. This paper presents theoretical ways in which this can be done and demonstrates that a 2.7 g/kg dose of PFC is approximately equivalent to 4 g/dL [Hb]. Clinical trial planning is discussed.


Allogeneic Blood Transfusion Oxyhemoglobin Saturation Transfusion Trigger Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve Surgical Blood Loss 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Gregory IC. The oxygen and carbon monoxide capacities of foetal and adult blood. J Physiol 1974;326:625–634.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Braunitzer G. Molekulaire struktur von haemoglobine. Nova Acta Acad Caesar Leop Carat 1963;26:471.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Prys-Roberts C, Foex P, Hahn CEW. Calculation of Blood PO2. Anesthesiology 1971;34:581–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Geyer RP, Monroe RG, Taylor K. Survival of rats totally perfused with a fluorocarbon-detergent preparation. In: Normal JC Ed. Organ perfusion and preservation. New York:Appleton Century Crofts 1986;85–96.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kelman GR. Digital subroutine for the conversion of oxygen tension into saturation. J Appl Physiol 1966;21:1375–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Faithfull NS, Rhoades GE, Keipert PE, et al. A program to calculate mixed venous oxygen tension - A guide to transfusion? Adv Exp Med Biol 1994;361:41–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Habler OP, Keen MS, Rutter JW, et al. Hemodilution and intravenous perflubron emulsion as an alternative to blood transfusion: Effects on tissue oxygenation during profound hemodilution in anesthetized dogs. Transfusion 1998;38:145–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Batra S, Peters BP, Symonds JD, et al. Perflubron emulsion increases tissue oxygenation in a canine model of hemodilution. Artif Cells, Blood Subs and Immob Technol 1996;24:307.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Weiskopf RB. Mathematical analysis of isovolemic hemodilution indicates that it can decrease the need for allogeneic blood transfusion. Transfusion 1995;35:37–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nadler SB, Hidalgo JU, Bloch T. Prediction of blood volume in normal human adults. Surgery 1962;51:224–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Spahn DR, Waschke K, Standl T, et al. Use of perflubron emulsion to decrease allogeneic blood transfusion in high-blood-loss non-cardiac surgery: results of a European Phase 3 study. Anesthes 2002;97. In Press.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Turnan KJ. Tissue oxygen delivery. Anesthesiology Clinics of North America 1990;8:451–69.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Simon Faithfull
    • 1
  1. 1.Alliance Pharmaceutical CorpSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations