Innate Immunity to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
Although one third of the world’s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), only 5 to 10% has a lifetime risk of developing active disease. Tuberculosis can develop either within 1-2 years after infection (primary tuberculosis) or at a later date (postprimary tuberculosis). Disease localization, severity, and outcome are highly variable. For example, miliary tuberculosis, characterized by the haematogenous dissemination of large numbers of mycobacteria throughout the body, is the most serious type of disease manifestation. In contrast, tuberculous pleuritis is usually a self-limiting disease. Tuberculosis may develop anywhere in the body, but usually presents as a pulmonary infection, ranging from mild infiltration to chronic, cavitary and severely destructive disease. The different manifestations of infection with MTB reflect the balance between bacillus and host-defence mechanisms, in which the quality of host defence determines the outcome.
KeywordsMycobacterium Tuberculosis Mycobacterial Infection Immune Recognition Miliary Tuberculosis Abdominal Tuberculosis
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