Live, Attenuated Salmonella Vaccine Vectors

  • Sims K. Kochi
  • Kevin P. Killeen
Part of the Medical Intelligence Unit book series (MIUN)


There were few effective means available for preventing human infectious diseases prior to the beginning of the 19th century, and millions of people succumbed to smallpox, cholera, diphtheria, typhoid fever, and influenza. In the late 1700s, Edward Jenner conceived the notion to vaccinate humans with a naturally attenuated virus to protect against smallpox infection. More than a century later, Louis Pasteur established the basis of modern live, attenuated vaccine technology by intentionally attenuating a microorganism and using it to vaccinate humans against infection 1. The number of vaccines available in 21st century industrialized countries has increased considerably since the times of Jenner and Pasteur (Fig. 1). The ease with which people travel today from one country to another has increased to an estimated 2.5 billion travelers per year. Virtually any place in the world can be reached within 36 hours, less than the incubation period for most infectious diseases. Thirty million people alone trek to regions every year where Hepatitis A is endemic, and many others face potential exposure to diarrhea-causing bacteria, typhoid and yellow fever, and malaria. Vaccines for many of these diseases are inadequate or do not exist. There also continues to be a pressing need for similar types of vaccines in developing countries and particularly those ravaged by natural disaster or civil war. These needs are accentuated by an increasing polarization between the standards of living of rich and poor nations and make issues of vaccine cost and availability plainly evident.


Vaccine Strain Protective Antigen Yersinia Pestis Vaccine Vector Oral Immunization 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sims K. Kochi
  • Kevin P. Killeen

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