Pathogen Transport in the Environment and its Relation to Public Health



Land application of manure is a common practice among livestock farms in Canada. In fact, the practice has been traditionally accepted and encouraged as one component of a sustainable agricultural system. From the farmers' point of view, recycling manure not only efficiently reduces disposal problems and decreases production costs, but also recovers valuable nutrients and improves crop yields. Ideally, under proper management, this practice represents efficient utilization of animal waste with little harm to the environment. Apart from its contribution toward excess nutrients, livestock manure can also contain various types of human pathogens. Depending on the sensitivity of pathogens to environmental stress, application of manure to land may result in contamination of soil and water supplies with undesirable organisms and thus pose a health hazard to the general public.


Fecal Coliform Animal Waste Fecal Bacterium Unsaturated Flow Liquid Manure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abu-Ashour, J., D. M. Joy, H. Lee, H. R. Whiteley, and S. Zelin. 1994. Transport of microorganisms through soil. Water, Air Soil Pollut. 75:141-158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abu-Ashour, J., and H. Lee. 2000. Transport of bacteria on sloping soil surfaces by runoff. Environ.Toxicol. 15:149-153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agricultural Guidelines Development Committee (AGDC). 1994. Farm practices guidelines for hog producers in Manitoba. Manitoba Agriculture, pp. 15-25.Google Scholar
  4. AGDC. 1998. Farm practices guidelines for hog producers in Manitoba. Manitoba Agriculture. pp.17-32.Google Scholar
  5. Bitton, G. 1999. Public health aspects of wastewater and biosolids disposal on land. In: Wastewater Microbiology. 2nd ed. Wiley-Liss, New York. pp. 429-447.Google Scholar
  6. Bundt, M. F. Widmer, M. Pesaro, J. Zeyer, and P. Blaser. 2001. Preferential flow paths: biological 'hot spots' in soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 33:729-738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Culley, J. L. B., and P. A. Phillips. 1982. Bacteriological quality of surface and subsurface runoff from manured sandy clay loam soil. J. Environ. Qual. 11:155-158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dean, D. M., and M. E. Foran. 1992. The effect of farm liquid waste application on tile drainage. J.Soil Water Conserv. 368-369.Google Scholar
  9. Edwards, D. R., and T. C. Daniel. 1994. Quality of runoff from fescue grass plots treated with poultry litter and inorganic fertilizer. J. Environ. Qual. 23:579-584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Evans, M. R., and J. D. Owens. 1972. Factors affecting the concentration of fecal bacteria in land-drainage water. J. Gen. Microbiol. 71:477-485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gagliardi, J. V., and J. S. Karns. 2000. Leaching of Escheríchia coli Ol57:H7 in diverse soils under various agricultural management practices. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:877-883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gannon, J. T., U. Mingelgrin, M. Alexander, and R. J. Wagenet. 1991. Bacterial transport through homogeneous soil. Soil Bio. Biochem. 23:1155-1160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gerba, C. P., and G. Bitton. 1984. Microbial pollutants: their survival and transport pattern in groundwater. In: G. Bitton and C. P. Gerba (eds.). Groundwater Pollution Microbiology. John Wiley & Sons, New York. pp. 65-88.Google Scholar
  14. Gerba, C. P., C. Wallis, and J. L. Melnick. 1975. Fate of wastewater bacteria and viruses in soil. J.Irrig. Drain. Div. 101:157-174.Google Scholar
  15. Goss, M. J., D. A. J. Barry, and D. L. Rudolph. 1998. Contamination in Ontario farmstead domestic wells and its association with agriculture: 1. results from drinking water wells. J. Contam.Hydrol. 32:267-293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hagedorn, C. 1984. Microbial aspects of groundwater pollution due to septic tanks. In: G. Bitton and C. P. Gerba (eds.). Groundwater Pollution Microbiology. John Wiley & Sons, New York.pp. 181-195.Google Scholar
  17. Howell, J. M., M. S. Coyne, and P. Cornelius. 1995. Fecal bacteria in agricultural waters of the bluegrass region of Kentucky. J. Environ. Qual. 24:411-419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Khaleel, R., K. R. Reddy, and M. R. Overcash. 1980. Transport of potential pollutants in runoff water from land areas receiving animal wastes: a review. Water Res. 14:421-436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lee, J. H., C. M. Reaume, H. R. Whiteley, and S. Zelin. 1998. Microbial contamination of subsurface tile drainage water from field applications of liquid manure. Can. Agric. Eng. 40:153-160.Google Scholar
  20. Mawdsley, J. L., R. D. Bardgett, R. J. Merry, B. F. Pain, and M. K. Theodorou. 1995. Pathogens in livestock waste, their potential for movement through soil and environmental pollution. Appl.Soil Ecol. 2:1-15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mawdsley, J. L., A. E. Brooks, R. J. Merry, and B. F. Pain. 1996. Use of a novel soil tilting table apparatus to demonstrate the horizontal and vertical movement of the protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum in soil. Biol. Fertil. Soils, 23:215-220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McMurry, S. W., M. S. Coyne, and E. Perfect. 1998. Fecal coliform transport through intact soil blocks amended with poultry manure. J. Environ. Qual. 27:86-92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ogden, I. D., D. R. Fenlon, A. J. A. Vinten, and D. Lewis. 2001. The fate of Escheríchia coli 0157 in soil and its potential to contaminate drinking water. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 66:111-117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Reddy, K. R., R. Khaleel, and M. R. Overcash. 1981. Behavior and transport of microbial pathogens and indicator organisms in soils treated with organic wastes. J. Environ. Qual. 10:255-266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Smith, M. S., G. W. Thomas, R. E. White, and D. Ritonga. 1985. Transport of Escheríchia coli through intact and disturbed soil columns. J. Environ. Qual. 14:87-91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of ManitobaWinnipeg

Personalised recommendations