Risk Assessment

  • Pamela R. D. Williams
  • Patrick J. Sheehan


Risk assessment is the process of determining the nature and extent of risks to human health and the environment. In a widely cited report, Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process (often referred to as the “Red Book”), risk assessments for human health are broadly defined as “the characterization of the potential adverse health effects of human exposures to environmental hazards”(NRC, 1983). The Red Book also details the main elements of the risk assessment process, including a description of potential adverse health effects (based on epidemiological, clinical, toxicological, and environmental research); extrapolation from available data to predict the type and estimate the extent of health effects in humans under certain exposure conditions; evaluation of the number and characteristics of persons exposed at various intensities and durations; and characterization of the overall magnitude of the public health problem and any uncertainties inherent in the process of inferring risk (NRC, 1983).


Risk Assessment PBPK Model Hazard Quotient Ecological Risk Assessment Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. ADL (Arthur D. Little). 2001. MTBE and the Requirements for Underground Storage Tank Construction and Operation in Member States: A Report to the European Commission. Cambridge, Massachusetts. ENV.D.l/ETU/2000/ 0089R.Google Scholar
  2. Ahlberg, R., Gennart, J.-R, Mitchell, R.E., Schulte-Koerne, Thomas, M.E., Va-hervuori, H., Vrijhof, H., and Watts, C.D. 2001. An Environmental Risk Assessment of MTBE Use in Europe. ECETOC/EFOA Task Force on Environmental Risk Assessment of MTBE, European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, European Fuel Oxygenate Association.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, E.L. 1983. Quantitative approaches in use to assess cancer risks. Risk Analysis. 3, 227–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, H.A., Hanrahan, L., Goldring J., and Delaney, B. 1995. An Investigation of Health Concerns Attributed to Reformulated Gasoline (RFG) Use in Southeastern Wisconsin. Wisconsin Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Health, Bureau of Public Health, Section of Environmental Epidemiology and Prevention. Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Final Report, May 1995.Google Scholar
  5. API (American Petroleum Institute). 1993. Gasoline Vapor Exposure Assessment at Service Stations. API Publication Number 4553. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  6. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 1995a. Public Health Assessment Guidance Manual. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Lewis Publishers.Google Scholar
  7. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 1995b. Toxicological Profile for Xylenes. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia.Google Scholar
  8. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 1998. Toxicological Profile for Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia.Google Scholar
  9. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 1999. Toxicological Profile for Ethylbenzene. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia.Google Scholar
  10. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 2000a. Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. Last updated February 17, 2000.
  11. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 2000b. Toxicological Profile for Toluene. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia.Google Scholar
  12. BAAQMD (Bay Area Air Quality Management District). 1998. Annual Report—Toxic Air Contaminant Control Program. Bay Area Air Quality Management District, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  13. Balter, N.J. 1997. Casualty assessment of the acute health complaints reported in association with oxygenated fuels. Risk Analysis. 17, 705–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barnes, D.G. and Dourson M. 1988. Reference dose (RfD): description and use in health risk assessments. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 8, 471–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bartell, S.M., Gardner, R.H., and O’Neill, R.V. 1992. Ecological Risk Estimation. New York, New York, Lewis Publishers.Google Scholar
  16. Belpoggi, F., Soffritti, M., and Maltoni, C. 1995. Methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE)-a gasoline additive-causes testicular and lympho-haematopietic cancers in rats. Toxicology and Industrial Health. 11, 119–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Belpoggi, F., Soffritti M., Filippini, F., and Maltoni, C. 1997. Results of longterm experimental studies on the carcinogenicity of methyl tert-butyl ether. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 837, 77–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Belpoggi, F., Soffritti, M., and Maltoni, C. 1998. Pathological characterization of testicular tumours and lymphomas-leukemias, and their precursors observed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to methyl tertiary butyl-ether (MTBE). European Journal of Oncology. 3, 201–206.Google Scholar
  19. Bird, M.G., Burleigh-Flayer, H.D., Chun, J.S., Douglas, J.F., Kneiss, J.J., and Andrew, L.S. 1997. Oncogenicity studies of inhaled methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in CD-1 mice and F-344 rats. Journal of Applied Toxicology. 17, S45–S55..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bolger, P. M., C.D. Carrington, and Henry, S.H. 1996. Risk assessment for risk management and regulatory decision-making at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. In: Toxicology and Risk Assessment: Principles, Methods and Applications, pp. 791–798. (Fan, A.M. and Chang, L.W., Eds.). New York, New York, Marcel Dekker Inc.Google Scholar
  21. Borak, J., Pastides, H., VanErt, M., Russi, M., and Herastein, J. 1998. Exposure to MTBE and acute health effects: a critical review. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 4, 177–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Borghoff, S.J, Murphy, J.E., and Medinsky, M.A. 1996. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for methyl tertiary-butyl ether and tertiary-butanol in male Fischer-344 rats. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. 30, 246–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Borghoff, SJ. and Williams, T.M. 2000. Species-specific tumor responses following exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether. CUT Activities. 20(2), 1–9.Google Scholar
  24. Brown, S.L. 1997. Atmospheric and potable water exposures to methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 25, 256–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Burleigh-Flayer, H. D., Chun, J. S., and Kintigh, W. J. 1992. Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether: Vapor Inhalation Oncogenicity Study in CD-1 Mice. Union Carbide Chemicals and Plastics Company, Inc., Export, Pennsylvania. Bushy Run Research Center Report No. 91N0013A.Google Scholar
  26. Calabrese, E.J. 2001. The frequency of U-shaped dose responses in the toxico-logical literature. Toxicological Sciences. 62, 330–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cal/EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 1994. CalTOX: A Multimedia Total Exposure Model for Hazardous Waste Sites. Department of Toxic Substances Control. Sacramento, California. Spreadsheet user’s guide, version 1.5.Google Scholar
  28. Cal/EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 1997. MTBE Briefing Paper. Sacramento, California.Google Scholar
  29. CA-OEHHA (California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment). 1999. Public Health Goal for Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Drinking Water. California Environmental Protection Agency, Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology Section, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. March 1999.Google Scholar
  30. CA-OEHHA (California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment). 2001. Public Health Goal for Benzene in Drinking Water. California Environmental Protection Agency, Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology Section, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. June, 2001.Google Scholar
  31. CARB (California Air Resources Board). 1997. Tert-Butyl Alcohol. Toxic air contaminant identification list summaries. September, 1997. pp. 159–161.Google Scholar
  32. CARB (California Air Resources Board). 1998. California Ambient Air Quality Data. California Environmental Protection Agency. CD Rom. December 1998.Google Scholar
  33. CARB (California Air Resources Board). 1999. ARB Bans MTBE and Modifies Rules for Cleaner Burning Gasoline. News Release. California Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
  34. CASWRCB (California State Water Resources Control Board). 2000. Regional Water Quality Control Board UST Program Managers and Local Oversight Program Managers. Letter from Elizabeth L. Haven, Manager of Underground Storage Tank Programs, Division of Clean Water Programs. April 12, 2000.Google Scholar
  35. CDHS (California Department of Health Services). 2001. MTBE in California Drinking Water. California Department of Health Services, Last updated December 4, 2001.
  36. CDHS (California Department of Health Services). 2002. Drinking Water Standards: Unregulated Chemicals Requiring Monitoring, Last updated February 8, 2002.
  37. Chun, J. S., Burleigh-Flayer H. Dv and Kintigh W.J. 1992. Methyl Tertiary Butyl-Ether: Vapor Inhalation Oncogenicity Study in Fischer 244 Rats. Union Carbide Chemicals and Plastics Company, Inc., Export, Pennsylvania. Bushy Run Research Center Report No. 91N0013B.Google Scholar
  38. Chun, J.S. and Kintigh, W.J. 1993. Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether: Twenty-Eight Day Vapor Inhalation Study in Rats and Mice. Bushy Run Research Center, Export, Pennsylvania. Laboratory project ID 93N1241.Google Scholar
  39. Cirvello, J.D., Radovsky, A., Heath, J.E., Farneil, D.R., Linamood, C. 1995. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of t-Butyl Alcohol in rats and mice following chronic exposure in drinking water. Toxicology and Industrial Health. 11, 151–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Clary, J.J. 1997. Methyl tertiary butyl ether systemic toxicity. Risk Analysis. 17, 661–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Clegg, E.D., Cook, J.C, Chapin, R.E., Foster, P.M., and Daston, G.P 1997. Ley-dig cell hyperplasia and adenoma formation: mechanisms and relevance to humans. Reproductive Toxicology. 11,107–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Clewall, H.J. 1995. The application of physiologically based pharmacokinet-ics modeling in human health risk assessment of hazardous substances. Toxicology Letters. 79,207–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Clewell, H.J., Gentry, PR., Gearhart, J.M., Allen, B.C., and Andersen, M.E. 1995. Considering pharmaxokinetics and mechanistic information in cancer risk assessments for environmental contaminants: examples with vinyl chloride and trichloroethylene. Chemosphere. 31, 2561–2578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cook, C.K. and Kovein, R.J. 1994. NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Report. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations and Field Studies, Cincinnati, Ohio. HETA 94-0220-2526.Google Scholar
  45. CRAM (Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management). 1997. Risk Assessment and Risk Management in Regulatory Decision-Making. Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, Washington, DC. Final Report, Volume 2.Google Scholar
  46. Cross, F.B. 1996. Paradoxical perils of the precautionary principle. Washington and Lee Law Review. 53, 851–925.Google Scholar
  47. Cullen, A.C. and H.C. Frey. 1999. Probabilistic techniques in exposure assessment. Risk Analysis. 14, 389–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Department of the Environment. 1991. Policy Appraisal and the Environment: A Guide for Government Departments. Norwich, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  49. Dourson, M. L. and Felter, S. P. 1997. Route-to-route extrapolation of the toxic potency of MTBE. Risk Analysis. 17, 717–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dourson, M.L., Felter, S.P., and Robinson, D. 1996. Evolution of science-based uncertainty factors in noncancer risk assessment. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 24,108–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. ECETOC (European Centre for Exotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals). 1997. MTBE Health Risk Characterisation. Brussels, Belgium. Technical Report No. 72, pp. 1–67.Google Scholar
  52. EEA (European Environment Agency). 2001. Late Lessons From Early Warnings: The Precautionary Principle 1986-2000. Denmark. Environmental Issue Report No. 22.Google Scholar
  53. El Saadi, O. and Langley, A. 1991. The Health Assessment and Management of Contaminated Sites. South Australian Health Commission, Adelaide, Australia.Google Scholar
  54. Environment Agency (1999). The Fuel Additive MTBE—A Groundwater Protection Issue? National Groundwater and Contaminated Land Centre.Google Scholar
  55. Environment Agency (2000). A Review of Current MTBE Usage and Occurrence in Groundwater in England and Wales. The Institute of Petroleum. R&D Publication 97.Google Scholar
  56. Fiedler, N., Kelly-McNeil, K., Mohr, S., Lehrer, P., Opiekun, R., Lee, C.W., Wainman, T., Hamer, R., Weisel, C, Edelberg, R., and Lioy, P. 2000. Controlled human exposure to methyl tiertiary butyl ether in gasoline: symptoms, psychopsysiologic and neurobehavioral responses of self-reported sensitive persons. Environmental Health Perspectives. 108(8), 753–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Finley, B., Scott P., and Paustenbach, D. 1993. Evaluating the adequacy of maximum contaminant levels as health-protective cleanup goals: an analysis based on Monte Carlo techniques. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 18, 438–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Finley, B., Proctor, D., Scott, P., Harrington, N., Paustenbach, D., and Price, P. 1994. Recommended distributions for exposure factors frequently used in health risk assessment. Risk Analysis. 14, 533–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Finley, B.L. and Paustenbach, D.J. 1994. The benefits of probabilistic exposure assessment: three case studies involving contaminated air, water, and soil. Risk Analysis. 14,53–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Freedman, B. 1989. Environmental Ecology: The Impacts of Pollution and Other Stresses on Ecosystem Structure and Function. New York, New York, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  61. Gargas, M.L., Finley, B.L., Paustenbach, D.J., and T.F. Long. 1999. Environmental health risk assessment: theory and practice. In: General and Applied Toxicology, Volume 3, 2nd edition, pp. 1749–1809. (Ballantyne, B., Marrs, T., and Syversen, T. Eds.). London, Macmillan.Google Scholar
  62. Ginjaar, L. 1996. Risk is More Than a Number: Reflections on the Development of the Environmental Risk Management Approach. Health Council of the Netherlands, Committee on Risk Measures and Risk Assessment, The Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  63. Grady, S.J. and Casey, G.D. 2001. Occurrence and Distribution of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and Other Volatile Organic Compounds in Drinking Water in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic Regions of the United States, 1993-98. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. Denver, CO. Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4228.Google Scholar
  64. Graham, J.D., Green, L., and Roberts, M.J. 1988. In Search of Safety: Chemicals and Cancer Risks. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Graham, J.D. 1995. Historical perspective on risk assessment in the federal government. Toxicology. 102, 29–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Graham, J.D. and Weiner, J.B. 1995. Risk vs. Risk: Tradeoffs in Protecting Health and the Environment. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Graham, J. D. and Hartwell, J.K. 1997. The Greening of Industry: A Risk Management Approach. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  68. HEI (Health Effects Institute). 1996. The Potential Health Effects of Oxygenates Added to Gasoline—A Review of the Current Literature. Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  69. Hery, B. 2001. MTBE in Europe: from sound science to a reliable component. European Fuel Oxygenates Association. Presented to De Witt MTBE/Oxy-genates & Methanol Conference, Houston, Texas. October 16-18,2001.Google Scholar
  70. Hickey, J.E. Jr. and Walker, V.R. 1995. Refining the precautionary principle in international environmental law. Virginia Environmental Law Journal. 14, 423–454.Google Scholar
  71. Hinton, J. 1993. Occupational exposures—MTBE. In: Procedures, Conference on MTBE and other Oxygenates: A Research Update.Google Scholar
  72. IARC. 1982. Benzene. IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks of chemicals to man. Some Industrial Chemicals and Dyestuffs. 29, IARC Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  73. IARC. 1999. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Some Chemicals that Cause Tomours of the Kidney or urinary Bladder in rodents and Some Other Substances. 73, IARC, Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  74. IPCS. 1998. Environmental Health Criteria 206. Methyl Tertiary-butyl Ether. International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  75. Johanson, G., Nihlen, A. and Lof, A. 1995. Toxicokinetics and acute effects of MTBE and ETBE in male volunteers. Toxicology Letters. 82/83, 713–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Johnson, W.D., Findlay, J., and Boynce, R.A. 1992. 28-Day Oral (Gavage) Toxi-city Study of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether in Rats. Prepared for Amoco. ITT Research Institute, Chicago, Illinois. ITT Research Institute Project No. L08100.Google Scholar
  77. Johnson, M.L. 1998. Ecological Risk ofMTBE in Surface Waters. Volume III: Air Quality and Ecological Effects Health and Environmental Assessment of MTBE, University of California.Google Scholar
  78. Johnson, T. 1993. Service station exposures. In: Proceedings of the Conference on MTBE and Other Oxygenates: A Research Update. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment. EPA/ 600/R-95/134.Google Scholar
  79. Klaassen, CD. 2001. Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology; The Basic Sciences of Poisons. (CD. Klaassen, Ed.). New York, New York, McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  80. Kolluru, R.V. 1996. Risk assessment and management: a unified approach. In: Risk Assessment and Management Handbook, pp. 1.3–1.41. (Kolluru, R.V., Bartell, S.M., Pitblado, R.M., and Stricoff, R.S., Eds.). New York, New York, McGraw Hill Inc.Google Scholar
  81. Leung, H.W. 1991. Development and utilization of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for toxicological applications. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. 32, 247–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Leung, H.W. and Paustenbach, DJ. 1995. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling in health risk assessment and characterization of hazardous substances. Toxicology Letters. 78, 55–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Leung, H.W. 2000. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling. In: General and Applied Toxicology, Volume I, pp. 141–154. (Ballantyne, B., Marrs, T. and Syversen, T., Eds.). London, United Kingdom, Macmillan Publishing..Google Scholar
  84. Licata, A.C., DeKant, W., Smith, CE., and Borghoff, S.J. 2001. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for methyl tert-butyl ether in humans: implementing sensitivity and variability analyses. Toxicological Sciences. 62, 191–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lioy, P.J., Weisel, C.P., Wan-Kuen, J., Pellizzari, E., and Raymer, J.H. 1994. Mi-croenvironmental and personal measurements of methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) associated with automobile use activities. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology. 4, 427–441.Google Scholar
  86. Malcolm Pirnie. 1998. Evaluation of the Pate and Transport ofEthanol in the Environment. Prepared for the American Methanol Institute. Oakland, California. November 1998.Google Scholar
  87. Mancini, E.R., Steen, A., Rausina, G.A., Wong, D.C.L., Arnold, W.R., Gostom-ski, F.E., Davies, T., Hockett, J.R., Stubblefield, W.A., Drottar, K.R., Springer, T.A., and Errico, P. 2002. MTBE ambient water quality criteria development: a public/private partnership. Environmental Science and Technology. 36, 125–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Masters, G.M. 1998. Chapter 4 Risk assessment. In: Introduction to Environment Engineering and Science, pp. 117–162. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  89. McClellan, R.O.1998. Chapter 127 Risk assessment. In: Environmental and Occupational Medicine. (Rom W.N., Ed.). Philadelphia, Lippincott-Raven Publishers.Google Scholar
  90. McDougal, J.N. 1996. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling. In: Dermatoxicology, pp. 37–60. (Marzulli, F.N. and Maibach, H.I. Eds.). London, Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  91. Mehlman, M.A. 1998. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil-refining and petrochemical industry: Part XXV, neurotoxic, allergic, and respiratory effects in humans form water and air contaminated by methyl tertiary butyl ether in gasoline. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. 7, 65–87.Google Scholar
  92. Mennear, J.H. 1997. Carcinogenicity studies on methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE): critical review and interpretation. Risk Analysis. 17, 73–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ministry of Housing. 1994. Environmental Quality Objectives in the Netherlands. Spatial Planning and Environment, Hague, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  94. Mohr, S., Fiedler, N., Weisel, C, and Kelly-McNeill, K. 1994. Health effects of MTBE among New Jersey garage workers. Inhalation Toxicology. 6, 553–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet). 2001. Tebol (TM) 93 Alcohol. Prepared by Lyondell Chemical Company. MSDS No: BE136, Variant: USA-EN, Version No: 1.2, Validation Data: December 14, 2001, pp. 1–9.Google Scholar
  96. NESCAUM (Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management). 1998. Relative Cancer Risk of Reformulated Gasoline and Conventional Gasoline Sold in the Northeast. August 1998.Google Scholar
  97. NESCAUM (Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management). 1999. RFG/MTBE: Findings and Recommendations. August 1999.Google Scholar
  98. NJDEP (New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection). 2002. Interim Specific and Generic Ground Water Quality Criteria. Last updated January 30, 2002.Google Scholar
  99. NRC (National Research Council). 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. Washington, DC, National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  100. NRC (National Research Council). 1989. Improving Risk Communication. Committee on Risk Perceptions and Communication. Washington, DC, National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  101. NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC, National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  102. NRC (National Research Council). 1996. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society. Washington, DC, National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  103. NSTC (National Science and Technology Committee). 1997. Interagency Assessment of Oxygenated Fuels. National Science and Technology Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR) and Interagency Oxygenated Fuels Assessment Steering Committee; White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) through the CENR of the Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  104. NTP (National Toxicology Program). 1995. TR 436: Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of t-Butyl Alcohol (CAS No. 75-65-0) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F 1 Mice (Drinking Water Studies). " Report Data: May 1995.
  105. NTP (National Toxicology Program). 1997. Toxicity Studies of T-Butyl Alcohol (CAS No. 75-65-0) Administered by Inhalation to F334/N Rats and B6C3F 1 Mice. Tox-53. National Toxicology Program, Research Triangle Park, NC. NTIS# PB98-108905. Report Data: July 1997.Google Scholar
  106. NTP (National Toxicology Program). 1999. Ninth Report on Carcinogens. National Toxicology Program, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.Google Scholar
  107. NTP (National Toxicology Program). 2002. Tert-Butyl Alcohol: Testing Status. Html. Last Update: February 11, 2002.Google Scholar
  108. OMB (Office of Management and Budget). 2001. Guidelines for Ensuring and Maximizing the Quality, Objectivity, Utility, and Integrity of Information Disseminated by Federal Agencies. Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President. October 1, 2001.Google Scholar
  109. Opiekun, R.E., Freeman, N., Kelley-McNeil, K., Fiedler, N.L., and Lioy, P.J. 2001. Effect of vehicle use and maintenance patterns of a self-described group of sensitive individuals and nonsensitive individuals to methyl tertiary-butyl ether in gasoline. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology. 11, 79–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ott, W.R. 1985. Total human exposure. Environmental Science and Technology. 19, 880–886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. PADEP (Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection). 1997. Administration of the Land Recycling Program (Act 2). 25 PA. Code CH. 250.Google Scholar
  112. Paustenbach, DJ. 1989a. The Risk Assessment of Environmental Hazards: A Textbook of Case Studies. (Paustenbach, D.J. Ed.). John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  113. Paustenbach, D.J. 1989b. Health risk assessments: opportunities and pitfalls. Columbia Journal of Environmental Law. 41, 379–410.Google Scholar
  114. Paustenbach, D.J. 1995. The practice of health risk assessment in the United States (1975-1995): how the U.S. and other countries can benefit from that experience. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 1, 29–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Paustenbach, D.J. 2000. The practice of exposure assessment: a state-of-the-art review. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health (Part B). 3, 179–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Paustenbach, D.J. 2002. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: Theory and Practice. (Paustenbach, D.J. Ed.). John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  117. Pekari, K., Riihmaki, V., Vainiotalo, S., Teravainen, E., and Aitio, A. 1996. Experimental exposure to methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and methyl-tertamyl ether (MTAE). International Symposium on Biological Monitoring in Occupational and Environmental Health, Finnish Institute of Occupational and Environmental Health, Helsinki, Finland. FIN-00250.Google Scholar
  118. Plough, A. and Krimsky, S. 1987. The emergence of risk communication studies: social and political context. Science, Technology, and Human Values. 12, 4–10.Google Scholar
  119. Rao, H.V. and Ginsberg, G.L. 1997. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model assessment of methyl t-butyl ether in groundwater for a bathing and showering determination. Risk Analysis. 17(5), 583–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Rausser, G.C., Adams, G.D., Montgomery, W.D., and Smith, A.E. 2001. The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California. Charles River Associates Report.Google Scholar
  121. Renwick, A.G. and Lazarus, N.R. 1998. Human variability and non-cancer risk assessment: an analysis of default uncertainty factors. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 27, 3–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Rice, D. and Cannon, G. 1999. Health and Environmental Assessment of the Use of Ethanol as a Fuel Oxygenate. Report to the California Environmental Policy Council in Response to Executive Order D-55-99. Volume I. Executive Summary. Air Resources Board, Office of Environmental Hazard Assessment, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.Google Scholar
  123. Robinson, M., Bruner, R.H., and Olson, G.R. 1990. Fourteen-and ninety-day oral toxicity studies of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Journal of the American College of Toxicology. 9, 525–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Ruckelshaus, W. D. 1985. Science, risk and public policy. Science. 221, 1026–1028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Sandman PM. 1993. Responding to Community Outrage: Strategies for Effective Risk Communication. American Industrial Hygiene Association, Fairfax, Virginia.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sandman PM. 1987. Explaining risk to non-experts. Emergency Preparedness Digest. Oct/Dec, 25–29.Google Scholar
  127. Simmons, K., Click, D., Kostecki, P., and Calabrese, E. 2001. AEHS’s 2000 survey of states’ soil and groundwater cleanup standards. Contaminated Soil Sediment and Water. February, 22–76.Google Scholar
  128. Slovic P. 1986. Informing and educating the public about risk. Risk Analysis. 6, 403–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Spitzer, H.L. 1997. An analysis of the health benefits associated with the use of MTBE reformulated gasoline and oxygenated fuels in reducing atmospheric concentrations of selected volatile organic compounds. Risk Analysis, 17, 683–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Squillace, P., Moran, M., Lapam, W., Price, C, Clawges, R. and Zogorski, J. 1999. Volatile organic compounds in untreated ambient groundwater in the United States, 1985-1995. Environmental Science and Technology. 33, 4176–4187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Stephenson, J.B. 2002. Testimony before the Committee on Energy and Commerce, Subcommittee on Environment and Hazardous Materials. MTBE contamination in ground water: Identifying and addressing the problem. Director of Environmental Issues, U.S. Government Accounting Office, Washington, D.C., May 21, 2002.Google Scholar
  132. Stern, B.R. and Tardiff, R.G. 1997. Risk characterization of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in tap water. Risk Analysis. 17, 727–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Suter, G.W. II. 1993. Ecological Risk Assessment. Ann Arbor, MI, Lewis Publishers.Google Scholar
  134. Thompson, K.M. and Graham, J.D. 1996. Going beyond the single number: using probabilistic risk assessment to improve risk management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 2, 1008–1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. TNRCC (Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission. 2002. PCL Tables. Last updated March 28, 2002.
  136. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1979. Final Report on Population Risk to Ambient Benzene Exposures. Springfield, Virginia. NTIS report number PB82–227372.Google Scholar
  137. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1984. Approaches to Risk Assessment of Multiple Chemical Exposures. Washington, DC. EPA 600/9-84-008.Google Scholar
  138. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1986a. Guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment. Federal Register. 51, 33992, September 24, 1986.Google Scholar
  139. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1986b. Guidelines for health risk assessment of chemical mixtures. Federal Register. 51, 34014, September 24, 1986.Google Scholar
  140. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1986c. Guidelines for the health assessment of suspect developmental toxicants. Federal Register. 51, 34028, September 24, 1986.Google Scholar
  141. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1988a. Xylenes. Integrated Risk Information System. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  142. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1988b. Proposed guidelines for exposure-related measurements. Federal Register. 53(232), 48830–48853.Google Scholar
  143. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1989. Chapter 8: Risk characterization. In: Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS). Volume I: Human health evaluation manual (HHEM), Part A, Interim Final. (Office of Emergency and Remedial Response). Washington, DC. EPA/540/1-89/002.Google Scholar
  144. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1991. Ethylbenzene. Integrated Risk Information System. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  145. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1992a. Guidance on Risk Characterization for Risk Managers and Risk Assessors. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  146. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1992b. Toluene. Integrated Risk Information System. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  147. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1992c. Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment. Risk Assessment Forum. Washington, DC. EPA/630 /R-02/011.Google Scholar
  148. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook. Volume I and II. Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC. EPA/600/R-93/187.Google Scholar
  149. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1995a. Policy for Risk Characterization. Science Policy Council, Washington, DC. Scholar
  150. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1995b. Elements to Consider When Drafting EPA Risk Characterizations. Science Policy Council, Washington, DC. Scholar
  151. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1995c. Guidance for Risk Characterization. Science Policy Council, Washington, DC. Scholar
  152. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1996a. Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC. EPA/600/P-92/003C.Google Scholar
  153. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1996b. Ecological Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Process for Designing and Conducting Ecological Risk Assessments. Environmental Response Team, Edison, New Jersey. Internal EPA Review Draft.Google Scholar
  154. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1997a. Drinking Water Advisory: Consumer Acceptability Advise and Health Effects Analysis on Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE). Office of Water, Washington, DC. EPA/822 /F-97/008.Google Scholar
  155. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1997b. Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  156. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1997c. Guiding Principles for Monte Carlo Analysis. Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC. EPA/630/R-97/001.Google Scholar
  157. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1997d. Ecological Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Process for Designing and Conducting Ecological Risk Assessments. Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington, DC. EPA/540/R-97/0065. Interim Final.Google Scholar
  158. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Guidelines for ecological risk assessment. Risk Assessment Forum. Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment. Washington, DC. EPA/630/R-95/002F. Federal Register. 63(93), 26846–26924.Google Scholar
  159. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999a. EPA Glossary of IRIS Terms. Integrated Risk Information System. Washington, DC. Scholar
  160. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999b. Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment.Washington, DC.. SAB review copy, July 1999.
  161. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999c. Achieving Clean Air and Clean Water: The Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Oxygenates in Gasoline. EPA420-R-99-021. September 15, 1999.Google Scholar
  162. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2000a. Science Policy Council Handbook: Risk Characterization. Office of Science Policy, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC. EPA/100/B/00/002.Google Scholar
  163. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2000b. Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE). Integrated Risk Information System. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  164. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2000c. Benzene. Integrated Risk Information System. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  165. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2000d. Drinking Water Health Advisories. Office of Water, Washington, DC. Scholar
  166. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2000e. Consumption Advisories. Office of Water. Washington, DC. Scholar
  167. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2000f. Clinton-Gore Administration Acts to Eliminate MTBE, Boost Ethanol. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Headquarters Press Release. March 30, 2000.Google Scholar
  168. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2001. ECO Update. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington, DC. EPA 540/F-01/014.Google Scholar
  169. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2002a. Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE). MTBE FAQs Drinking Water. Washington, DC. www.epa. gov/mtbe/water.htm.Google Scholar
  170. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2002b. Approved Methods for Unregulated Contaminants. Washington, D.C. " methods/unregtbl.html#lst2aero. Last updated March 28, 2002.
  171. UC (University of California). 1998. Health and Environmental Assessment of MTBE. Report to the Governor and Legislature of the State of California sponsored by SB521. Five Volumes, 874 pp. Submitted through the University of California (UC) Toxic Substances Research and Teaching Program SB521 MTBE Research Program. Davis, California. November 12, 1998.Google Scholar
  172. Walker, K. 1992. Australian Environmental Policy: Ten Case Studies. Kensington, Australia, New South Wales University Press.Google Scholar
  173. Weiner, J.B. 2002. Precaution in a multi risk world. In: Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: Theory and Practice. (Paustenbach, D.J. Ed.). New York, New York, John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  174. Werner, I. and Hinton, D.E. 1998. Toxicity of MTBE to Freshwater Organisms. Volume III: Air Quality and Ecological Effects. Health and Environmental Assessment of MTBE, University of California.Google Scholar
  175. Williams, P.R.D. 2001. MTBE in California drinking water: an analysis of patterns and trends. Journal of Environmental Forensics. 2, 75–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Williams, P.R.D. and Paustenbach, DJ. 2002. Risk characterization: principles and practice. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health (Part B: Critical Reviews). 5, 337–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Williams, P.R.D., Benton, L., Warmerdam, J., and Sheehan, P. 2002. A comparative risk analysis of six volatile organic compounds in California drinking water. Environmental Science and Technology. 36, 4721–4728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Williams, P.R.D., Scott, P.K., Sheehan, P.J., and Paustenbach, D.J. 2000a. A probabilistic assessment of household exposures to MTBE from drinking water. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 6, 827–849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Williams, P.R.D., Sheehan, P.J., and Paustenbach, D.J. 2000c. MTBE ambient air and drinking water exposures in California. Presentation at the International Society of Exposure Analysis Annual Conference. Monterey, California. October 24-27, 2000.Google Scholar
  180. Williams, T.M and Borghoff, S.J. 2001. Characterization of tert-Butyl Alcohol binding to α2u-globulin in F-344 Rats. Toxicological Sciences. 62, 228–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Williams, T.M., Cattley, R.C., and Borghoff, S.J. 2000b. Alterations in endrocrine response in male Sprague-Dawley rats following oral administration of methyl tert-butyl ether. Toxicological Sciences. 54, 168–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Amherst Scientific Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pamela R. D. Williams
  • Patrick J. Sheehan

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations