Recovery of Gelatin with Improved Functionality from Seafood Processing Waste

  • Venkateshwarlu Gudipati
  • Nagalakshmi Kannuchamy


Gelatin is a water-soluble protein prepared from the extraction of collagen which is present in various animal by-products. Though the most abundant sources of gelatin are pig skin, bovine hide, and pork and cattle bones, the market data show the increased preference and demand for fish gelatin due to socioreligious reasons. The vast diversity of available fish species has necessitated the need to develop and optimize extraction procedures to recover gelatin with desirable functional properties. During the last two decades, several researchers have explored various approaches to extract fish gelatin with improved functionality. The recovery of fish gelatin mainly encompasses the pretreatment of raw materials and extraction conditions. The extraction processes have been reported to influence the amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution of polypeptide chains and, consequently, the functional properties of the gelatin. The essentials of different extraction procedures from fish waste developed by various researchers, including optimization of the extraction process by response surface methodology and the influence of extraction parameters on the functional properties of extracted gelatin, are detailed in this chapter.


Response Surface Methodology Grass Carp Extraction Temperature Nile Perch Fish Skin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aewsiri T, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W, Eun JB, Wierenga PA, Gruppen H (2009) Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by oxidised phenolic compounds. Food Chem 117:160–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arafah E, Herpandi, Handayani T (2008) Characterization of gelatin from snakehead fish bone. In: Proceedings of the Seminar Nasional Tahunan V Hasil Penelitian Perikanan dan Kelautan, Semnaskan UGM, 26 July, pp 15–15Google Scholar
  3. Arnesen JA, Gildberg A (2006) Extraction of muscle proteins and gelatine from cod head. Process Biochem 41:697–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Avena-Bustillos RJ, Olsen CW, Olson DA, Chiou B, Yee E, Bechtel PJ, McHugh TH (2006) Water vapor permeability of mammalian and fish gelatin films. J Food Sci 71:E202–E207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bailey AJ, Light ND (1989) Connective tissue in meat and meat products. Elsevier Applied Science, London/New York, pp 238–242Google Scholar
  6. Barve S (2012) Method of producing gelatin from fish. WIPO Patent Application WO/2012/160575Google Scholar
  7. Benjakul S, Oungbho K, Visessanguan W, Thiansilakul Y, Roytrakul S (2009) Characteristics of gelatin from the skins of bigeye snapper, Priacanthus tayenus and Priacanthus macracanthus. Food Chem 116(2):445–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhat R, Karim AA (2009) Ultraviolet irradiation improves gel strength of fish gelatin. Food Chem 113:1160–1164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bigi A, Cojazzi G, Panzavolta S, Rubini K, Roveri N (2001) Mechanical and thermal properties of gelatin films at different degrees of glutaraldehyde crosslinking. Biomaterials 22:763–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brinckmann J (2005) Collagens at a glance. Top Curr Chem 247:1–6Google Scholar
  11. Chen T, Embree HD, Brown EM, Taylor MM, Payne GF (2003) Enzyme-catalyzed gel formation of gelatin and chitosan: potential for in situ applications. Biomaterials 24:2831–2841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cheng LH, Lim BL, Chow KH, Chong SM, Chang YC (2008) Using fish gelatin and pectin to make a low-fat spread. Food Hydrocoll 22:1637–1640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cho SM, Kwak KS, Park DC, Gu YS, Ji CI, Jang DH, Lee YB, Kim SB (2004) Processing optimization and functional properties of gelatin from shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) cartilage. Food Hydrocoll 18:573–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cho SM, Gu YS, Kim SB (2005) Extracting optimization and physical properties of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) skin gelatin compared to mammalian gelatins. Food Hydrocoll 19:221–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Choi SS, Regenstein JM (2000) Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fish gelatin. J Food Sci 65:194–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cole CGB (2000) Gelatin, encyclopedia of food science and technology, vol 4, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 1183–1188Google Scholar
  17. De Carvalho RA, Grosso CRF (2004) Characterization of gelatin based films modified with transglutaminase, glyoxal and formaldehyde. Food Hydrocoll 18:717–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. De Jong GAH, Koppelman SJ (2002) Transglutaminase catalyzed reactions: impact on food applications. J Food Sci 67:2798–2806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Djabourov M, Lechaire JP, Gaill F (1992) Structure and rheology of gelatin and collagen gels. Biorheology 30:191–205Google Scholar
  20. Duan R, Zhang J, Du X, Yao X, Konno K (2010) Properties of collagen from skin, scale and bone of carp (Cyprinus carpio). Food Chem 112:702–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. European Parliament and Council (2006) European Parliament and Council Directive No 95/2/EC of 20 February 1995 on food additives other than colours and sweeteners. Retrieved from Accessed 23 Feb 2013
  22. Eysturskarð J, Haug IJ, Ulset AS, Draget KI (2009) Mechanical properties of mammalian and fish gelatins based on their weight average molecular weight and molecular weight distribution. Food Hydrocoll 23:2315–2321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fernández-Díaz MD, Montero P, Gómez-Guillén MC (2001) Gel properties of collagens from skins of cod (Gadus morhua) and hake (Merluccius merluccius) and their modification by the coenhancers magnesium sulphate, glycerol and transglutaminase. Food Chem 74:161–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fernández-Díaz MD, Gomez-Guillen MC, Montero P (2003) Effect of freezing fish skin on molecular and rheological properties of extracted gelatine. Food Hydrocoll 17:281–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ferraro V, Cruz IB, Jorge RF, Malcata FX, Pintado ME, Castro PML (2010) Valorisation of natural extracts from marine source focused on marine by-products: a review. Food Res Int 43(9):2221–2233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gennadios A, Weller CL (1991) Edible films and coatings from soymilk and soy protein. Cereal Foods World 36:1004–1009Google Scholar
  27. Giménez B, Gómez-Guillén MC, Montero P (2005) The role of salt washing of fish skins in chemical and rheological properties of gelatin extracted. Food Hydrocoll 19:951–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gómez-Guillén MC, Montero P (2001) Extraction of gelatin from megrim (Lepidorhombus boscii) skins with several organic acids. J Food Sci 66(2):213–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gómez-Guillén MC, Turnay J, Fernández-Díaz MD, Ulmo N, Lizarbe MA, Montero P (2002) Structural and physical properties of gelatin extracted from different marine species: a comparative study. Food Hydrocoll 16:25–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gómez-Guillén MC, Giménez B, Montero P (2005) Extraction of gelatin from fish skins by high pressure treatment. Food Hydrocoll 19:923–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gómez-Guillén MC, Giménez B, López-Caballero ME, Montero MP (2011) Functional and bioactive properties of collagen and gelatin from alternative sources: a review. Food Hydrocoll 25(8):1813–1827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Grossman S, Bergman M (1992) Process for the production of gelatin from fish skins. US Patent 5,093,474Google Scholar
  33. Gudipati V (2013) Fish gelatin: a versatile ingredient for the food and pharmaceutical industries. In: Kim S-K (ed) Marine proteins and peptides: biological activities and applications, 1st edn. Wiley, Chichester, pp 271–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gudmundsson M, Hafsteinsson H (1997) Gelatin from cod skins as affected by chemical treatment. J Food Sci 62:37–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Harrington WF, Von Hippel PH (1961) The structure of collagen and gelatin. In: Anfisen CB, Edsall JT, Richards FM (eds) Advances in protein chemistry. Academic, New York, pp 1–138Google Scholar
  36. Haug IJ, Draget IK, Smidsrød O (2004) Physical and rheological properties of fish gelatin compared to mammalian gelatin. Food Hydrocoll 18:203–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hinterwaldner R (1977) Raw materials & technology of gelatin manufacture. In: Ward AG, Courts A (eds) The science and technology of gelatin. Academic, London, pp 295–361Google Scholar
  38. Hoque MS, Benjakul S, Prodpran T (2010) Effect of heat treatment of film-forming solution on the properties of film from cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) skin gelatin. J Food Eng 96:66–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ikoma T, Kobayashi H, Tanaka J, Walsh D, Mann S (2003) Physical properties of type I collagen extracted from fish scales of Pagrus major and Oreochromis niloticas. Int J Biol Macromol 32:199–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jakhar JK, Basu S, Sasidharan S, Chouksey MK, Gudipati V (2013) Optimization of process parameters for gelatin extraction from the skin of Blackspotted croaker using response surface methodology. J Food Sci Technol. doi: 10.1007/s13197-012-0883-9 Google Scholar
  41. Jiang L (2013) Preparation of fish-scale gelatins by mild hydrolysis and their characterization. J Polym Environ 21(2):564–567. doi: 10.1007/s10924-012-0546-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Johnston-Banks FA (1990) Gelatin. In: Harris P (ed) Food gels. Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp 233–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Karim AA, Bhat R (2008) Gelatin alternatives for the food industry: recent developments, challenges and prospects. Trends Food Sci Technol 19:644–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Karim AA, Bhat R (2009) Fish gelatin: properties, challenges, and prospects as an alternative to mammalian gelatins. Food Hydrocoll 23:563–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kasankala LM, Xue Y, Weilong Y, Hong SD, He Q (2007) Optimization of gelatine extraction from grass carp (Catenopharyngodon idella) fish skin by response surface methodology. Bioresour Technol 98(17):3338–3343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kelleher K (2005) Discards in the world’s marine fisheries. An update, FAO fisheries technical paper no 470. FAO, Rome, p 131Google Scholar
  47. Kharyeki ME, Rezaei M, Motamedzadegan A (2011) The effect of processing conditions on physico-chemical properties of whitecheek shark (Carcharhinus dussumieri) skin gelatin. Int Aquat Res 3:63–69Google Scholar
  48. Kim S-K, Mendis E (2006) Bioactive compounds from marine processing byproducts – a review. Food Res Int 39:383–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kittiphattanabawon P, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W, Shahidi F (2010) Comparative study on characteristics of gelatin from the skins of brownbanded bamboo shark and blacktip shark as affected by extraction conditions. Food Hydrocoll 24:164–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Koli JM, Basu S, Nayak BB, Nagalakshmi K, Gudipati V (2011) Improvement of gel strength and melting point of fish gelatin by addition of coenhancers using response surface methodology. J Food Sci 76:E503–E509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Koli JM, Basu S, Nayak BB, Patange SB, Pagarkar A, Gudipati V (2012) Functional characteristics of gelatin extracted from skin and bone of Tiger-toothed croaker (Otolithes ruber) and Pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus). Food Bioprod Process 90(3):555–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kołodziejska I, Kaczorowski K, Piotrowska B, Sadowska M (2004) Modification of the properties of gelatin from skins of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) with transglutaminase. Food Chem 86:203–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kołodziejska I, Skierka E, Sadowska M, Kołodziejski W, Niecikowska C (2008) Effect of extracting time and temperature on yield of gelatin from different fish offal. Food Chem 107:700–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ledward DA (1986) Gelation of gelatin. In: Mitchell JR, Ledward DA (eds) Functional properties of food macromolecules. Elsevier, London, pp 171–201Google Scholar
  55. Liu CL (1979) Studies on the extraction of gelatin fiom shark skin and skate skio. J Chin Agric Chem Soc 17(12):35–39Google Scholar
  56. Liu HY, Li D, Guo SD (2008) Rheological properties of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) gelatine from fish skins preserved by different methods. LWT Food Sci Technol 41:1425–1430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mohtar NF, Perera CO, Quek S-Y (2010) Optimisation of gelatine extraction from hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae) skins and measurement of gel strength and SDS–PAGE. Food Chem 122:307–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Montero P, Gómez-Guillén MC, Borderías AJ (1999) Functional characterization of muscle and skin collagenous material from hake (Merluccius merluccius L.). Food Chem 65:55–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Morrissey MT, Lin J, Ismond A (2005) Waste management and by-product utilization. In: Park JW (ed) Surimi and surimi seafood, 2nd edn. CRC Press/Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton/Hoboken, pp 279–323Google Scholar
  60. Muyonga JH, Cole CGB, Duodu KG (2004) Extraction and physico-chemical characterisation of Nile Perch (Lates niloticus) skin and bone gelatin. Food Hydrocoll 18:581–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Naftalin RJ, Symons MCR (1974) The mechanism of sugar-dependent stabilisation of gelatin gels. Biochimica Biophysica Acta 352:173–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ofori RA (1999) Preparation of gelatin from fish skin by an enzyme aided process. Thesis submitted to Department of Food Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Macdonald Campus of McGill University, Montreal, Canada, 146 ppGoogle Scholar
  63. Rahman MS, Al-Saidi GS, Guizani N (2008) Thermal characterisation of gelatin extracted from yellowfin tuna skin and commercial mammalian gelatin. Food Chem 108:472–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sanaei AV, Mahmoodani F, See SF, Yusop SM, Babji AS (2013) Optimization of gelatin extraction and physico-chemical properties of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) bone gelatin. Int Food Res J 20(1):423–430Google Scholar
  65. Stainsby G (1987) Gelatin gels. In: Pearson AM, Dutson TR, Bailey AJ (eds) Advances in meat research, vol 4, Collagen as food. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp 209–222Google Scholar
  66. Tabarestani HS, Maghsoudlou Y, Motamedzadegan A, Mahoonak ARS (2010) Optimization of physico-chemical properties of gelatin extracted from fish skin of rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss). Bioresour Technol 101(15):6207–6214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tanaka M, Iwata K, Sanguandeekul R, Handa A, Ishizaki S (2001) Influence of plasticizers on the properties of edible films prepared from fish water-soluble proteins. Fish Sci 67:346–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Thanonkaew A, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W, Decker EA (2008) The effect of antioxidants on the quality changes of cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) muscle during frozen storage. LWT Food Sci Technol 41(1):161–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Uresti RM, Ramírez J, López-Arias N, Vázquez M (2003) Negative effect of combining microbial transglutaminase with low methoxyl pectins on the mechanical properties and colour attributes of fish gels. Food Chem 80:551–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Veis A (1964) The macromolecular chemistry of gelatin. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  71. Wang Y, Regenstein JM (2009) Effect of EDTA, HCl, and citric acid on Ca salt removal from Asian (silver) carp scales prior to gelatin extraction. J Food Sci 74(6):C426–C431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wangtueai S, Noomhorm A (2009) Processing optimization and characterization of gelatin from lizardfish (Saurida spp.) scales. LWT Food Sci Technol 42:825–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wasswa J, Tang J, Gu X (2007) Utilization of fish processing by-products in the gelatin industry. Food Rev Int 23:159–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Yi JB, Kim YT, Bae HJ, Whiteside WS, Park HJ (2006) Influence of transglutaminase-induced cross-linking on properties of fish gelatin films. J Food Sci 71:E376–E383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Zeng S, Yan X, Cao W, Hong P, Zhang C, Li L (2010) Optimisation of extraction conditions and characteristics of skin gelatin from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Int J Food Sci Technol 45:1807–1813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Zhang F, Xu S, Wang Z (2011) Pre-treatment optimization and properties of gelatin from freshwater fish scales. Food Bioprod Process 89(3):185–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Zhou P, Regenstein JM (2004) Optimization of extraction conditions for pollock skin gelatin. J Food Sci 69:C393–C398Google Scholar
  78. Zhou P, Regenstein JM (2005) Effects of alkaline and acid pretreatments on Alaska pollock skin gelatin extraction. J Food Sci 70(6):C392–C396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Zhou P, Regenstein JM (2007) Comparison of water gel desserts from fish skin and pork gelatins using instrumental measurements. J Food Sci 72:C192–C201CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Venkateshwarlu Gudipati
    • 1
  • Nagalakshmi Kannuchamy
    • 1
  1. 1.Fishery Resources, Harvest and Post Harvest Management DivisionCentral Institute of Fisheries EducationMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations