Chitosan Nanoparticles: Preparation, Characterization, and Applications

Chapter

Abstract

Chitosan, a polysaccharide obtained by partial deacetylation of chitin from the shells of crustaceans, is one of the most often studied natural biopolymers, having the potential for numerous industrial applications. The development of micro- and nanoparticles of chitosan and its derivatives paved a path for applying these biomolecules in a more effective and economical manner, and expanding their applications in more diverse fields than those expected. Similar to all the other types of nanoparticles developed from different materials, chitosan nanoparticles also possess their own physical, chemical, and morphological characteristics that finally determine their applications. The methods of preparation of chitosan nanoparticles are significantly responsible for their bioactivities and behavioral characteristics in different systems and applications. The main methods of preparation of chitosan nanoparticles include emulsion cross-linking, emulsion-droplet coalescence, coacervation/precipitation, ionotropic gelation, reverse micelles, template polymerization, and molecular self-assembly. All these methods have their own advantages as well as drawbacks, in relation to the properties of the nanoparticles. However, careful preparation of chitosan nanoparticles could provide a higher affinity for negatively charged biological membranes and site-specific targeting in vivo, enabling their application as encapsulating materials of drugs, enzymes, and DNA, used in controlled release systems and as coatings of wound dressings to accelerate healing. Chitosan nanoparticles-based films are used in the food industry to control microorganisms in food and to enhance shelf life while strengthening the mechanical properties and stability of the food-packing materials. Although the chitosan nanoparticles appear to be safe in some of their applications, knowledge on the risks imposed in these food and pharmaceutical applications needs to be strengthened further.

Keywords

Cellulose Surfactant Toxicity Mold Polysaccharide 

References

  1. Agnihotri SA, Mallikarjuna NN, Aminabhavi TM (2004) Recent advances on chitosan-based micro- and nanoparticles in drug delivery. J Control Release 100:5–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aider M (2009) Chitosan application for active bio-based films production and potential in the food industry: review. http://www.ebah.com.br/content/ABAAAA4rUAD/chitosan-application-for-active-bio-based-films-production-and-potentialin-the-food-industry-review. Accessed Aug 2012
  3. Anonymous (2010) Chitosan (deacetylated chitin biopolymer). Natural Standard professional monograph. http://www.livingnaturally.com/ns/DisplayMonograph.asp?storeID=E32FA6C399AB4C99897032581851D45D&DocID=bottomline-chitosan. Accessed July 2012
  4. Baer DR (2010) Surface characterization of nanoparticles: challenges and opportunities. http://www.greennano.org/webfm_send/49. Accessed Aug 2012
  5. Bansal V, Sharma PK, Sharma N, Pal OP, Malviya R (2011) Applications of chitosan and chitosan derivatives in drug delivery. Adv Biol Res 5:28–37Google Scholar
  6. Berthod A, Kreuter J (1996) Chitosan microspheres-improved acid stability and change in physicochemical properties by cross-linking. Proc Int Symp Control Release Bioact Mater 23:369–370Google Scholar
  7. Bodmeier R, Oh K-H, Pramar Y (1989) Preparation and evaluation of drug-containing chitosan beads. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 15:1475–1494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bodnar M, Hartmann JF, Borbely J (2005) Preparation and characterization of chitosan-based nanoparticles. Biomacromolecules 6:2521–2527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bowman K, Leong KW (2006) Chitosan nanoparticles for oral drug and gene delivery. Int J Nanomedicine 1:117–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brück MW, Slater JW, Carney BF (2010) Chitin and chitosan from marine organisms. In: Kim S-K (ed) Chitin, chitosan, oligosaccharides and their derivatives: biological activities and applications. Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, pp 11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chung Y-C, Su Y-P, Chen C-C, Jia G, Wang H-I, Wu JCG, Lin J-J (2004) Relationship between antibacterial activity of chitosan and surface characteristics of cell wall. Acta Pharmacol Sin 25:932–936Google Scholar
  12. Colonna C, Conti B, Perugini P, Pavanetto F, Modena T, Dorati R, Genta I (2007) Chitosan glutamate nanoparticles for protein delivery: development and effect on prolidase stability. J Microencapsul 24:553–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cong Y, Pang CF, Dai L, Banta GT, Selck H, Forbes VE (2011) Importance of characterizing nanoparticles before conducting toxicity tests. Integr Environ Assess Manag 7:502–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Corradini E, De Moura MR, Mattoso LHC (2010) A preliminary study of the incorporation of NPK fertilizer into chitosan nanoparticles. Express Polym Lett 4:509–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crestini C, Kovac B, Giovannozzi-Sermanni G (1996) Production and isolation of chitosan by submerged and solid-state fermentation from Lentinus edodes. Biotechnol Bioeng 50:207–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. De Moura MR, Aouada FA, Avena-Bustillos RJ, McHugh TH, Krochta JM, Mattoso LHC (2009) Improved barrier and mechanical properties of novel hydroxypropyl methylcellulose edible films with chitosan/tripolyphosphate nanoparticles. J Food Eng 92:448–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. De Moura MR, Lorevice MV, Mattoso LHC, Zucolotto V (2011) Highly stable, edible cellulose films incorporating chitosan nanoparticles. J Food Sci 76:N25–N29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Deği̇rmenci̇oğlu N, İrki̇n R, Deği̇rmenci̇oğlu A, Kabasakal A (2009) Chitosan and its application in food industry. Akademik Gida 7:35–41Google Scholar
  19. Dutta PK, Dutta J, Tripathi VS (2004) Chitin and chitosan: chemistry, properties and applications. J Sci Ind Res 63:20–31Google Scholar
  20. Gill R (2003) Nano- and micro-encapsulation of food additives and agrochemicals. USDA Grant Propos 2003–00331Google Scholar
  21. Gonçalves C, Pereira P, Gama M (2010) Self-assembled hydrogel nanoparticles for drug delivery applications. Materials 3:1420–1460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gooday GW (1990) The ecology of chitin degradation. In: Marschall KC (ed) Advances in microbial ecology. Plenum Press, New York, pp 387–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hayes M, Carney B, Slater J, Brück W (2008) Mining marine shellfish wastes for bioactive molecules: chitin and chitosan – Part A: extraction methods. Biotechnol J 3:871–877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hettiarachchi, MA, Wickramarachchi PASR (2012) Activity of silver nano chitosan composites against the banana pathogen Colletotrichum musae. Abstracts. In: International conference on chemical sciences, Colombo, p 12Google Scholar
  25. Jang K-I, Lee HG (2008) Stability of chitosan nanoparticles for L-ascorbic acid during heat treatment in aqueous solution. J Agric Food Chem 56:1936–1941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kafshgari MH, Khorram M, Khodadoost M, Khavari S (2011) Reinforcement of chitosan nanoparticles obtained by an ionic cross-linking process. Iran Polym J 20:445–456Google Scholar
  27. Kaloti M, Bohidar HB (2010) Kinetics of coacervation transition versus nanoparticle formation in chitosan–sodium tripolyphosphate solutions. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 81:165–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Knezevic-Jugovic Z, Petronijevic Z, Smelcerovic A (2010) Chitin and chitosan from microorganisms. In: Kim S-K (ed) Chitin, chitosan, oligosaccharides and their derivatives: biological activities and applications. Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, pp 25–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Keong LC, Halim AS (2009) In vitro models in biocompatibility assessment for biomedical-grade chitosan derivatives in wound management. Int J Mol Sci 10:1300–1313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kunjachan S, Jose S, Lammers T (2010) Understanding the mechanism of ionic gelation for synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles using qualitative techniques. Asian J Pharm 4:148–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kuzma J, Romanchek J, Kokotovich A (2008) Upstream oversight assessment for agrifood nanotechnology: a case studies approach. https://www2.hhh.umn.edu/publications/6269/document.pdf. Accessed Aug 2012
  32. Lee H-Y, Jeong Y-L, Choi K-C (2011) Hair dye-incorporated poly-γ-glutamic acid/glycol chitosan nanoparticles based on ion-complex formation. Int J Nanomedicine 6:2879–2888Google Scholar
  33. Leonida MD, Banjade S, Vo T, Anderle G, Haas GJ, Philips N (2011) Nanocomposite materials with antimicrobial activity based on chitosan. Int J Nano Biomater 3:316–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lim CK, Yaacob NS, Ismail Z, Halim AS (2010) In vitro biocompatibility of chitosan porous skin regenerating templates (PSRTs) using primary human skin keratinocytes. Toxicol In Vitro 24:721–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Loh JW, Schneider J, Carter M, Saunders M, Lim LY (2010) Spinning disc processing technology: potential for large-scale manufacture of chitosan nanoparticles. J Pharm Sci 99:4326–4336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. López-León T, Carvalho ELS, Seijo B, Ortega-Vinuesa JL, Bastos-González D (2005) Physicochemical characterization of chitosan nanoparticles: electrokinetic and stability behavior. J Colloid Interface Sci 283:344–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Maynard AD (2006) Nanotechnology: a research strategy for addressing risk, vol 3, PEN. Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  38. Nishimura K, Nishimura SI, Seo H, Nishi N, Tokura S, Azuma I (1986) Macrophage activation with multi-porous beads prepared from partially deacetylated chitin. J Biomed Mater Res 20:1359–1372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nwe N, Stevens WF (2008) Production of chitin and chitosan and their applications in the medical and biological sector. In: Tamura H (ed) Recent research in biomedical aspects of chitin and chitosan. Research Signpost, Kerala, pp 161–176Google Scholar
  40. Nwe N, Furuike T, Tamura H (2010) Chitin and chitosan from terrestrial organisms. In: Kim S-K (ed) Chitin, chitosan, oligosaccharides and their derivatives: biological activities and applications. Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, pp 3–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Oberdörster G, Oberdörster E, Oberdörster J (2005) Nanotoxicology: an emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine particles. Environ Health Perspect 113:823–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Olivier J-C (2005) Drug transport to brain with targeted nanoparticles. NeuroRx 2:108–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Papadimitriou S, Bikiaris D, Avgoustakis K, Karavas E, Georgarakis M (2008) Chitosan nanoparticles loaded with dorzolamide and pramipexole. Carbohydr Polym 73:44–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Peter MG, Kegel G, Keller R (1986) Structural studies on sclerotized insect cuticle. In: Muzzarelli RAA, Jeuniaux C, Gooday GW (eds) Chitin in nature and technology. Plenum Press, New York, pp 21–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pileni MP (2006) Reverse micelles used as templates: a new understanding in nanocrystal growth. J Exp Nanosci 1:13–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Qi LF, Xu ZR, Jiang X, Hu CH, Zou XF (2004) Preparation and antibacterial activity of chitosan nanoparticles. Carbohydr Res 339:2693–2700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Qi L-F, Xu Z-R, Li Y, Jiang X, Han X-Y (2005) In vitro effects of chitosan nanoparticles on proliferation of human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC803 cells. World J Gastroenterol 11:5136–5141Google Scholar
  48. Rayment P, Butler MF (2008) Investigation of ionically crosslinked chitosan and chitosan–bovine serum albumin beads for novel gastrointestinal functionality. J Appl Polym Sci 108:2876–2885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ritthidej GC, Pichayakorn W, Kusonwiriyawong N, Lipipun V (2007) Preparation of chitosan nanoparticles for protein delivery by w/o/w emulsion solvent evaporation and simple ionotropic gelation techniques. Solid State Phenom 121:751–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sato ACK, Quintas MAC, Vicente AA, Cunha RL (2012) Food grade nanoparticles obtained from natural source ingredients. http://www.icef11.org/content/papers/fms/FMS1083.pdf. Accessed Aug 2012
  51. Shi L-E, Fang X-J, Xing L-Y, Chen M, Zhu D-S, Guo X-F, Zhao L-M, Tang Z-X (2011) Chitosan nanoparticles as drug delivery carriers for biomedical engineering. J Chem Soc Pak 33:929–934Google Scholar
  52. Shu XZ, Zhu KJ (2001) Chitosan/gelatin microspheres prepared by modified emulsification and ionotropic gelation. J Microencapsul 18:237–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Teng WL, Khor E, Tan TK, Lim LY, Tan SC (2001) Concurrent production of chitin from shrimp shells and fungi. Carbohydr Res 332:305–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tokumitsu H, Ichikawa H, Fukumori Y (1999) Chitosan–gadopentetic acid complex nanoparticles for gadolinium neutron-capture therapy of cancer: preparation by novel emulsion-droplet coalescence technique and characterization. Pharm Res 16:1830–1835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tokura S, Tamura H (2007) Chitin and chitosan. In: Kamerling H, Boons G, Lee YC, Suzuki A, Taniguchi N, Voragen AGJ (eds) Comprehensive glycoscience. Elsevier, Boston, pp 449–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. USDA (2011) Developing green nanotechnology for eliminating foodborne pathogens. http://fsrio.nal.usda.gov/nal_web/fsrio/printresults.php?ID=6762. Accessed Aug 2012
  57. VandeVord PJ, Matthew HWT, DeSilva SP, Mayton L, Wu B, Wooley PH (2001) Evaluation of the biocompatibility of a chitosan scaffold in mice. http://www.eng.wayne.edu/user_files/372/file/Quick_Upload/vandevord%20et%20al%20evaluation%20of%20biocompatibility.pdf. Accessed Jul 2012
  58. Vasconez MB, Flores SK, Campos CA, Alvarado J, Gershenson LN (2009) United States Patent 5,919,574Google Scholar
  59. Vila A, Sánchez A, Tobıo M, Calvo P, Alonso MJ (2002) Design of biodegradable particles for protein delivery. J Control Release 78:15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wang Q, Zhang B (2012) Self-assembled nanostructures. In: Padua GW, Wang Q (eds) Nanotechnology research methods for foods and bioproducts. Wiley-Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  61. Wang X, Du Y, Liu H (2004) Preparation, characterization and antimicrobial activity of chitosan–Zn complex. Carbohydr Polym 56:21–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Yang H, Yuan B, Lu YB, Cheng RS (2009) Preparation of magnetic chitosan microspheres and its applications in wastewater treatment. Sci Chin Ser B Chem 52:249–256Google Scholar
  63. Zambaux MF, Bonneaux F, Gref R, Dellacherie E, Vigneron C (1999) Preparation and characterization of protein C-loaded PLA nanoparticles. J Control Release 60:179–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zhao L-M, Shi L-E, Zhang Z-L, Chen J-M, Shi D-D, Yang J, Tang Z-X (2011) Preparation and application of chitosan nanoparticles and nanofibers. Braz J Chem Eng 28:353–362Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Science & TechnologyUniversity of PeradeniyaPeradeniyaSri Lanka

Personalised recommendations