The Interface between Positive Youth Development and Youth Career Development: New Avenues for Career Guidance Practice

Chapter
Part of the International and Cultural Psychology book series (ICUP)

Abstract

Youth and their families are located in a community setting. Participation in community-based youth services affords benefits for both the youth and the community. The crux of the argument presented in this chapter is that such benefits extend to youth career development. The community is a powerful context for youth development (including youth career development), and career practitioners along with other youth professionals can help structure optimal developmental opportunities for youth in their own ecology. Career-related youth work in communities can help build the career readiness of youth in more sustained, impactful ways.

In this chapter, first relevant constructs are reviewed. Key notions regarding positive youth development (PYD) are clarified. This includes: the applied, interdisciplinary, and integrative character of PYD; an asset rather than deficit model; a focus on all youth; developmental assets; five Cs; promotion of the common good; and intentional change. Likewise the key notions of community youth development such as youth participation and youth engagement are also outlined. The characteristics of high-quality PYD/community youth development programs are identified, and empirical evidence of the efficacy of PYD programs in the United States is summarized. The subsection on youth career development covers the varied strategies for building career readiness of youth; for example, facilitating youth in self-exploration and self-development, facilitating youth exposure to the world of work, and helping youth build networks with caring adults/mentors. Characteristics of high-quality youth career development programs are outlined, and the empirical evidence of the efficacy of youth career development programs in the United States is presented. Next, the linkages between youth career development, on the one hand, and PYD/community youth development, on the other hand, are explored. It is concluded that youth career development can be optimized through the use of a PYD approach.

In the next section, the linkages between PYD/community youth development and youth career development are substantiated through an example of a religious community’s youth services in India. The youth programs of the Shia Ismaili Muslim community in India, offered through the Aga Khan Youth and Sports Board for India (AKYSBI), are surveyed and examined to illustrate the extent to which community youth programs afford (or can afford) benefits for youth career development. It was found that the AKYSBI programs did address youth career development; at the same time, there are many ways in which the connection between PYD/community youth development and youth career development can be strengthened.

Recommendations for career guidance practice have been listed. It is important that career guidance practitioners shift and expand their focus from the individual to the group, that is, from one-on-one work in guidance settings to group work in communities. In addition, career guidance practitioners must develop strategies for youth work in rural communities and support youth in building readiness for a variety of careers that can be sustained in rural communities rather than largely focusing on those that require migration to cities. Lastly, relevance for multiple cultures is discussed, and the salience of a community-based approach in career guidance practice is reiterated.

Keywords

Migration Economic Crisis Income Posit 

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1991a). Manual for the child behavior checklist/4-18 and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont.Google Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M. (1991b). Manual for the youth self-report and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont.Google Scholar
  3. African Youth Charter (n.d.). Retrieved from http://africa-youth.org/sites/default/files/AFRICAN_YOUTH_CHARTER.pdf
  4. Aga Khan Youth and Sports Board for India (AKYSBI). (2005). Addressing the needs of rural youth. Unpublished report.Google Scholar
  5. Alexander, K. P., & Hirsch, B. J. (2012). Marketable job skills for high school students: What we learned from an evaluation of After School Matters. New Directions for Youth Development, 134, 55–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arulmani, G. (2011). Striking the right note: The cultural preparedness approach to developing resonant career guidance programmes. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 11(2), 79–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arulmani, G., & Bakshi, A. J. (2012, October). Career belief patterns: A framework to understand orientations to career development across cultures and socioeconomic status groups. Paper presented at the IAEVG international conference, Mannheim, Germany.Google Scholar
  8. Arulmani, G., & Nag-Arulmani, S. (2004). Career counselling: A handbook. New Delhi, India: Tata McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  9. Arulmani, G., Van Laar, D., & Easton, S. (2003). The influence of career beliefs and socio-economic status on the career decision-making of high school students in India. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 3, 193–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bakshi, A. J. (2011). Past adolescence, into and across adulthood: Career crises and major decisions. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 11(2), 139–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baltes, P. B., Lindenberger, U., & Staudinger, U. M. (2006). Life span theory in developmental psychology. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Series Eds.), & R. M. Lerner (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, Vol. 1: Theoretical models of human development (pp. 569–664). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  12. Bandura, A. (2002). Social cognitive theory in cultural context. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 51(2), 269–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Benson, P. L. (2007). Developmental assets: An overview of theory, research, and practice. In R. K. Silbereisen & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Approaches to positive youth development (pp. 33–58). London, UK: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Benson, P. L., & Saito, R. N. (2000). The scientific foundations of youth development. In Youth development: Issues, challenges and directions (pp. 125–148). Philadelphia, PA: Public/Private Ventures.Google Scholar
  15. Benson, P. L., Scales, P. C., Hamilton, S. F., & Sesma, A., Jr. (2006a). Positive youth development: Theory, research, and applications. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Series Eds.), & R. M. Lerner (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, Vol. 1: Theoretical models of human development (pp. 894–941). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  16. Benson, P. L., Scales, P. C., Hamilton, S. F., & Sesma, A., Jr. (with Hong, K. L., & Roehlkepartain, E. C.). (2006b). Positive youth development so far: Core hypotheses and their implications for policy and practice. Search Institute Insights & Evidence: Promoting Healthy Children, Youth, and Communities, 3(1), 1–13.Google Scholar
  17. Bimrose, J., & Brown, A. (2014). Mid-career progression and development: The role for career guidance and counseling. In G. Arulmani, A. J. Bakshi, F. T. L. Leong, & A. G. Watts (Eds.), Handbook of career development: International perspectives. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  18. Brandtstädter, J. (2006). Action perspectives on human development. In W. Damon and R. M. Lerner (Series Eds.), & R. M. Lerner (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, Vol. 1: Theoretical models of human development (pp. 516–568). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  19. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Catalano, R. F., Berglund, M. L., Ryan, J. A. M., Lonczak, H. S., & Hawkins, J. D. (2004). Positive youth development in the United States: Research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 591, 98–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cooley, C. H. (1902). Human nature and the social order. New York, NY: Charles Scribner. Retrieved from http://www.archive.org/details/humannaturesocia00cooluoft
  22. Damon, W. (2004). What is positive youth development? The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 591, 13–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Damon, W., Menon, J., & Bronk, K. C. (2003). The development of purpose during adolescence. Applied Developmental Science, 7(3), 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Denner, J., & Griffin, A. (2003). The role of gender in enhancing program strategies for healthy youth development. In F. A. Villarruel, D. F. Perkins, L. M. Borden, & J. G. Keith (Eds.), Community youth development: Programs, policies, and practices (pp. 118–145). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Eccles, J., & Gootman, J. A. (Eds.). (2002). Community programs to promote youth development (Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth. Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. National Research Council/Institute of Medicine). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  26. Ferrari, T. M. (2003). Working hand in hand: Community youth development and career development. In F. A. Villarruel, D. F. Perkins, L. M. Borden, & J. G. Keith (Eds.), Community youth development: Programs, policies, and practices (pp. 201–223). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gestsdóttir, S., & Lerner, R. M. (2007). Intentional self-regulation and positive youth development in early adolescence: Findings from the 4-H study of positive youth development. Developmental Psychology, 43(2), 508–521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gottlieb, G., Wahlsten, D., & Lickliter, R. (2006). The significance of biology for human development: A developmental psychobiological systems view. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Series Eds.), & R. M. Lerner (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, Vol. 1: Theoretical models of human development (pp. 210–257). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  29. Greene, K. M., & Staff, J. (2012). Teenage employment and career readiness. New Directions for Youth Development, 134, 23–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Halpern, R. (2012). Supporting vocationally oriented learning in the high school years: Rationale, tasks, challenges. New Directions for Youth Development, 134, 85–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hamilton, S. F., & Hamilton, M. A. (2012). Development in youth enterprises. New Directions for Youth Development, 134, 65–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Harter, S. (2006). The self. In W. Damon and R. M. Lerner (Series Eds.), & N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, Vol. 3: Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp. 505–570). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  33. Huebner, A. J. (2003). Positive youth development: The role of competence. In F. A. Villarruel, D. F. Perkins, L. M. Borden, & J. G. Keith (Eds.), Community youth development: Programs, policies, and practices (pp. 341–357). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hynes, K. (2012). Next steps for research and practice in career programming. New Directions for Youth Development, 134, 107–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hynes, K., & Hirsch, B. J. (2012). Issue editors’ notes. New Directions for Youth Development, 134, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. International Labour Office (ILO). (2010). Global employment trends for youth August 2010. Special issue on the impact of the global economic crisis on youth. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.Google Scholar
  37. Kirshner, B., O’Donoghue, J. L., & McLaughlin, M. (2002). Issue editors’ notes. New Directions for Youth Development, 96, 5–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Klein, D. (2012). Building business-community partnerships to support youth development. New Directions for Youth Development, 134, 77–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Krumboltz, J. D. (2009). The happenstance learning theory. Journal of Career Assessment, 17(2), 135–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Krumboltz, J. D., & Worthington, R. L. (1999). The school-to-work transition from a learning theory perspective. Career Development Quarterly, 47(4), 312–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Larson, R. W. (2000). Toward a psychology of positive youth development. American Psychologist, 55(1), 170–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lerner, R. M. (2003). Developmental assets and asset-building communities: A view of the issues. In R. M. Lerner & P. L. Benson (Eds.), Developmental assets and asset-building communities: Implications for research, policy, and practice (pp. 3–18). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lerner, R. M. (2005, September). Promoting positive youth development: Theoretical and empirical bases. White paper prepared for the Workshop on the Science of Adolescent Health and Development, National Research Council/Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC: National Academies of Science.Google Scholar
  44. Lerner, R. M. (2006). Developmental science, developmental systems, and contemporary theories of human development. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Series Eds.), & R. M. Lerner (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, Vol. 1: Theoretical models of human development (pp. 1–17). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  45. Lerner, R. M. (2011, October). Positive youth development: Processes, philosophies, programs, and prospects. Keynote address at the Youth-Nex inaugural conference entitled “Forward thinking: Preparing our youth for the coming world”. Curry School of Education, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.Google Scholar
  46. Lerner, R. M., Almerigi, J. B., Theokas, C., & Lerner, J. V. (2005). Positive youth development: A view of the issues. Journal of Early Adolescence, 25(1), 10–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lerner, R. M., & Lerner, J. V. (2012). The positive development of youth. Report of the findings from the first eight years of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development. Chevy Chase, MD: National 4-H Council.Google Scholar
  48. Lerner, R. M., Lerner, J. V., Almerigi, J. B., Theokas, C., Phelps, E., Gestsdottir, S., … von Eye, A. (2005). Positive youth development, participation in community youth development programs, and community contributions of fifth-grade adolescents: Findings from the first wave of the 4-H study of positive youth development. Journal of Early Adolescence, 25(1), 17–71.Google Scholar
  49. Lerner, R. M., & Steinberg, L. (2009). The scientific study of adolescent development: Historical and contemporary perspectives. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology, Vol. 1: Individual bases of adolescent development (3rd ed., pp. 3–14). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mazkoory, P., Irani, B., & Bakshi, A. (2010, October). Youth services in the Zoroastrian community: Critical evaluation with regard to career guidance. Poster presented at the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance IAEVG-Jiva conference, Bangalore, India.Google Scholar
  51. Mekinda, M. A. (2012). Support for career development in youth: Program models and evaluations. New Directions for Youth Development, 134, 45–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports. (2011). Report of Working Group on Adolescent and Youth Development, Department of Youth Affairs, Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports for formulation of 12th five year plan (2012–17). New Delhi, India: Government of India.Google Scholar
  53. Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, Government of India (n.d.). Exposure draft National Youth Policy 2012. Retrieved from http://www.yas.nic.in/writereaddata/mainlinkfile/File1039.pdf
  54. Naylor, F. D., & Krumboltz, J. D. (1994). The independence of aptitudes, interests, and career beliefs. Career Development Quarterly, 43(2), 152–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. O’Donoghue, J. L., Kirshner, B., & McLaughlin, M. (2002). Introduction: Moving youth participation forward. New Directions for Youth Development, 96, 15–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Perkins, D. F., & Borden, L. M. (2003). Key elements of community youth development programs. In F. A. Villarruel, D. F. Perkins, L. M. Borden, & J. G. Keith (Eds.), Community youth development: Programs, policies, and practices (pp. 327–340). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Perkins, D. F., Borden, L. M., Keith, J. G., Hoppe-Rooney, T. L., & Villarruel, F. A. (2003). Community youth development: Partnership creating a positive world. In F. A. Villarruel, D. F. Perkins, L. M. Borden, & J. G. Keith (Eds.), Community youth development: Programs, policies, and practices (pp. 1–24). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Perkins, D. F., Borden, L. M., & Villarruel, F. A. (2001). Community youth development: A partnership for action. The School Community Journal, 11(2), 39–56.Google Scholar
  59. Perry, J. C., & Wallace, E. W. (2012). What schools are doing around career development: Implications for policy and practice. New Directions for Youth Development, 134, 33–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pittman, K., Irby, M., & Ferber, T. (2000). Unfinished business: Further reflections on a decade of promoting youth development. In Youth development: Issues, challenges and directions (pp. 17–64). Philadelphia, PA: Public/Private Ventures.Google Scholar
  61. Porfeli, E. J., & Lee, B. (2012). Career development during childhood and adolescence. New Directions for Youth Development, 134, 11–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Roth, J. L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2003). Youth development programs: Risk, prevention and policy. Journal of Adolescent Health, 32(3), 170–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Salvatore, S., Nota, L., Ferrari, L., & Ginevra, M. C. (2014). Parental influences on youth’s career construction. In G. Arulmani, A. J. Bakshi, F. T. L. Leong, & A. G. Watts (Eds.), Handbook of career development: International perspectives. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  64. Savickas, M. L. (2005). The theory and practice of career construction. In S. D. Brown & R. W. Lent (Eds.), Career development and counseling: Putting theory and research to work (pp. 42–70). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  65. Scales, P. C., & Leffert, N. (2004). Developmental assets: A synthesis of the scientific research on adolescent development. Minneapolis, MN: Search Institute.Google Scholar
  66. Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS). (1991). What work requires of schools: A SCANS report for America 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor.Google Scholar
  67. Silbereisen, R. K., & Lerner, R. M. (2007). Approaches to positive youth development: A view of the issues. In R. K. Silbereisen & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Approaches to positive youth development (pp. 3–30). London, UK: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Small, S., & Memmo, M. (2004). Contemporary models of youth development and problem prevention: Toward an integration of terms, concepts, and models. Family Relations, 53(1), 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. The Commonwealth. (n.d.). Young people. Retrieved from http://www.thecommonwealth.org/Internal/180392/
  70. Thelen, E., & Smith, L. B. (2006). Dynamic systems theories. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Series Eds.), & R. M. Lerner (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, Vol. 1: Theoretical models of human development (pp. 258–312). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  71. Theokas, C., Almerigi, J. B., Lerner, R. M., Dowling, E. M., Benson, P. L., Scales, P. C., & von Eye, A. (2005). Conceptualizing and modeling individual and ecological asset components of thriving in early adolescence. Journal of Early Adolescence, 25(1), 113–143.Google Scholar
  72. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (n.d.). What do we mean by youth? Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/youth/youth-definition/
  73. Valles, R. (2012). Creating awareness among students aged 13–15 years towards the development of a purpose in life. Indian Journal of Career and Livelihood Planning, 1(1), 36–43.Google Scholar
  74. Yang, K.-S. (2012). Indigenous psychology, Westernized psychology, and indigenized psychology: A non-Western psychologist’s view. Chang Gung Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 5(1), 1–32.Google Scholar
  75. Youth Engaged in Leadership and Learning (YELL). (2007). A handbook for supporting community youth researchers. Stanford, CA: John W. Gardner Center.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Human Development, Nirmala Niketan College of Home ScienceUniversity of MumbaiMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Nirmala Niketan College of Home ScienceUniversity of MumbaiMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations