Characterization of Nanoparticles
Synthesis of nanoparticles using different techniques of encapsulation has attracted a lot of interest these days and the incorporation of nanoparticles into food items has made food more “functional.” But, this field of research is still under trial and is not yet knocking on the door of industry. There are some limitations that are hindering the path of revolution. Before the incorporation of nanoparticles into any food product or drug, it is necessary to characterize the behavior of the miniature product. This chapter reviews the various techniques for characterization of nanoparticles.
Characterization includes both physical and chemical aspects. Physical characteristics include structure, morphology, size, state of aggregation, dispersion, sorption, surface charge, and solubility whereas the chemical properties include temperature, pH, etc. (Tiede et al., Food Addit Contam A 25(7):795–821, 2008). Different techniques are available for analyzing these aspects. Structure and morphology can be analyzed by the techniques of microscopy including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Chromatography-related techniques are used for the separation of particles on the basis of the size and charge on their surface. Different chromatographic techniques include size exclusion chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, hydrodynamic chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis. Centrifugation and filtration techniques help to filter the particle on the basis of their density and size. X-ray diffraction methodology is also exploited for the identification of crystalline solids from their atomic structure (Luykx et al., J Agr Food Chem 56(18):8231–8247, 2008). The techniques mentioned above are sensitive enough to detect the small particles.
KeywordsHigh Performance Liquid Chromatography Filtration Electrophoresis Tungsten Encapsulation
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