Characterization of Nanoparticles

  • C. Anandharamakrishnan
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Food, Health, and Nutrition book series (BRIEFSFOOD)


Synthesis of nanoparticles using different techniques of encapsulation has attracted a lot of interest these days and the incorporation of nanoparticles into food items has made food more “functional.” But, this field of research is still under trial and is not yet knocking on the door of industry. There are some limitations that are hindering the path of revolution. Before the incorporation of nanoparticles into any food product or drug, it is necessary to characterize the behavior of the miniature product. This chapter reviews the various techniques for characterization of nanoparticles.

Characterization includes both physical and chemical aspects. Physical characteristics include structure, morphology, size, state of aggregation, dispersion, sorption, surface charge, and solubility whereas the chemical properties include temperature, pH, etc. (Tiede et al., Food Addit Contam A 25(7):795–821, 2008). Different techniques are available for analyzing these aspects. Structure and morphology can be analyzed by the techniques of microscopy including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Chromatography-related techniques are used for the separation of particles on the basis of the size and charge on their surface. Different chromatographic techniques include size exclusion chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, hydrodynamic chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis. Centrifugation and filtration techniques help to filter the particle on the basis of their density and size. X-ray diffraction methodology is also exploited for the identification of crystalline solids from their atomic structure (Luykx et al., J Agr Food Chem 56(18):8231–8247, 2008). The techniques mentioned above are sensitive enough to detect the small particles.


Atomic Force Microscopy Dynamic Light Scattering Dynamic Light Scattering Synthesize Silver Nanoparticles Translational Diffusion Coefficient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Herrera JE, Sakulchaicharoen N (2009) Microscopic and Spectroscopic Characterization of Nanoparticles, Informa Healthcare, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  2. Lawes G (1987) Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis: Analytical chemistry by open learning, John Wiley & sons.Google Scholar
  3. Luykx DMAM, Peters RJB, Ruth SMV, Bouwmeester H (2008) A Review of Analytical Methods for the Identification and Characterization of Nano Delivery Systems in Food. J Agr Food Chem 56(18):8231–8247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Nobbmann U, Connah M, Fish B, Varley P, Gee C, Mulot S, Chen J, Zhou L, Lu Y, Sheng F, Yi J Harding SE (2007) Dynamic light scattering as a relative tool for assessing the molecular integrity and stability of monoclonal antibodies. Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev 24(1):117–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Quintanilla-Carvajal MX, Camacho-Diaz BH, Meraz-Torres L S, Chanona-Perez JJ, Alamilla-Beltran L, Jimenez-Aparicio A, Gutierrez-Lopez GF (2010) Nanoencapsulation: A new trend in food engineering processing. Food Eng Rev 2(1):39–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Sathishkumar M, Sneha M, Won SW, Cho CW, Kim S, Yun YS (2009) Cinnamon zeylanicum bark extract and powder mediated green synthesis of nano-crystalline silver particles and its bactericidal activity. Colloid Surf B 73(2):332–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Tiede K, Boxall A, Tear SP, Lewis J, David H, Hassellov M (2008) Detection and characterization of engineered nanoparticles in food and the environment. Food Addit Contam A 25(7):795–821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Weiner BB, Tscharnuter WW, Fairhurst D (1993) Zeta Potential: A New Approach. Canadian Mineral Analysts Meeting.Google Scholar
  9. Williams DB (1996) Transmission Electron Microscopy, A textbook for Material Science, Plenum Press, New York and London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© C. Anandharamakrishnan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Anandharamakrishnan
    • 1
  1. 1.Food Engineering DepartmentCSIR-Central Food Tech. Research Inst.MysoreIndia

Personalised recommendations