Advertisement

Risk Assessment and Regulations

  • Lucy J. Robertson
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Food, Health, and Nutrition book series (BRIEFSFOOD)

Abstract

In this chapter, the principal approaches and legislation for controlling Cryptosporidium contamination in the food chain are described, with particular emphasis on HACCP and risk assessment (RA). An example is described in which quantitative microbial RA (QMRA) was used to estimate the risk of acquiring cryptosporidiosis from fresh produce (tomatoes, cucumbers, bell peppers and lettuce) being cultivated in Mexico. Data input into the model include the concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in irrigation water (including the efficiency of the detection method), the retention of irrigation water on the produce and the daily consumption of the various products by consumers in the USA. Worst-case assumptions included in the model (100 % transfer of oocysts to produce and all cysts being infectious to humans) are also noted. Another study is described that investigates the potential for foodborne cryptosporidiosis being acquired in the UK from ingestion of root crops grown in soil that has been augmented with treated sewage sludge. Although it is acknowledged that such exercises are flawed and limited, the utility of the data achieved is also discussed.

Keywords

Irrigation Water Sewage Sludge Bell Pepper Cryptosporidium Oocyst Hazard Identification 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Budu-Amoako E, Greenwood SJ, Dixon BR, Barkema HW, McClure JT (2011) Foodborne illness associated with Cryptosporidium and Giardia from livestock. J Food Prot 74(11):1944–1955. doi: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-11-107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Collier SA, Smith S, Lowe A, Hawkins P, McFarland P, Salyers M, Rocco P, Bumby G, Maillard J-M, Williams C, Fleischauer A, Radke V, Roberts JM, Hightower AW, Bishop HS, Mathison BA, da Silva AJ, Carpenter J, Hayden AS, Hlavsa MC, Xiao L, Roberts VA, Brunkard J, Beach MJ, Hill V, Yoder J, Dunbar EL, Dearen T, Bopp C, Humphrys MS, Phillips G, Chang L, Meites EM (2011) Cryptosporidiosis outbreak at a summer camp—North Carolina. Morb Mortal Wkly MMWR 60:918–922Google Scholar
  3. Gale P (2005) Land application of treated sewage sludge: quantifying pathogen risks from consumption of crops. J Appl Microbiol 98(2):380–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hamilton AJ, Stagnitti F, Premier R, Boland AM, Hale G (2006b) Quantitative microbial risk assessment models for consumption of raw vegetables irrigated with reclaimed water. Appl Environ Microbiol 72(5):3284–3290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hutchison ML, Walters LD, Moore T, Thomas DJ, Avery SM (2005) Fate of pathogens present in livestock wastes spread onto fescue plots. Appl Environ Microbiol 71(2):691–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Moore JE, Millar BC, Kenny F, Lowery CJ, Xiao L, Rao JR, Nicholson V, Watabe M, Heaney N, Sunnotel O, McCorry K, Rooney PJ, Snelling WJ, Dooley JSG (2007) Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in lettuce. Int J Food Sci Technol 42:385–393. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.01235.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Mota A, Mena KD, Soto-Beltran M, Tarwater PM, Cháidez C (2009) Risk assessment of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water irrigating fresh produce in Mexico. J Food Prot 72(10):2184–2188Google Scholar
  8. Robertson LJ, Sprong H, Ortega Y, van der Giessen JWB, Fayer R (submitted). Impacts of globalisation on foodborne parasitesGoogle Scholar
  9. Robertson LJ, Chalmers RM (2013) Foodborne cryptosporidiosis: is there really more in Nordic countries? Trends Parasitol 29(1):3–9. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2012.10.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Schijven JF, Teunis PF, Rutjes SA, Bouwknegt M, de Roda Husman AM (2011) QMRAspot: a tool for Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment from surface water to potable water. Water Res 45(17):5564–5576. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2011.08.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Shuval H, Lampert Y, Fattal B (1997) Development of a risk assessment approach for evaluating wastewater reuse standards for agriculture. Water Sci Technol 35(11–12):15–20. doi: 10.1016/S0273-1223(97)00228-X Google Scholar
  12. Silverlås C, Mattsson JG, Insulander M, Lebbad M (2012) Zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium meleagridis on an organic Swedish farm. Int J Parasitol 42(11):963–967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Smeets PW, Rietveld LC, van Dijk JC, Medema GJ (2010) Practical applications of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) for water safety plans. Water Sci Technol 61(6):1561–1568. doi: 10.2166/wst.2010.839 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Tang J, McDonald S, Peng X, Samadder SR, Murphy TM, Holden NM (2011) Modelling Cryptosporidium oocysts transport in small ungauged agricultural catchments. Water Res 45(12):3665–3680. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2011.04.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Westrell T, Schönning C, Stenström TA, Ashbolt NJ (2004) QMRA (quantitative microbial risk assessment) and HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control points) for management of pathogens in wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and reuse. Water Sci Technol 50(2):23–30Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Lucy J. Robertson 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucy J. Robertson
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Food Safety & Infection Biology Norwegian School of Veterinary ScienceOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations