Risk Assessment and Regulations
In this chapter, the principal approaches and legislation for controlling Cryptosporidium contamination in the food chain are described, with particular emphasis on HACCP and risk assessment (RA). An example is described in which quantitative microbial RA (QMRA) was used to estimate the risk of acquiring cryptosporidiosis from fresh produce (tomatoes, cucumbers, bell peppers and lettuce) being cultivated in Mexico. Data input into the model include the concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in irrigation water (including the efficiency of the detection method), the retention of irrigation water on the produce and the daily consumption of the various products by consumers in the USA. Worst-case assumptions included in the model (100 % transfer of oocysts to produce and all cysts being infectious to humans) are also noted. Another study is described that investigates the potential for foodborne cryptosporidiosis being acquired in the UK from ingestion of root crops grown in soil that has been augmented with treated sewage sludge. Although it is acknowledged that such exercises are flawed and limited, the utility of the data achieved is also discussed.
KeywordsIrrigation Water Sewage Sludge Bell Pepper Cryptosporidium Oocyst Hazard Identification
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