Cell Therapy of Cancer
Cell therapy is the prevention or treatment of human disease by the administration of cells that have been selected, multiplied, and pharmacologically treated or altered outside the body (ex vivo). The scope of cell therapy can be broadened to include methods, pharmacological as well as non-pharmacological, to modify the function of intrinsic cells of the body in vivo for therapeutic purposes. The aim of cell therapy is to replace, repair, or enhance the function of damaged tissues or organs. The cells used can originate from the patient or from a donor or from another species. Other sources include cell lines and cell from patients’ tumors to make cancer vaccines. Cells can be encapsulated in selectively permeable membranes that block entry of immune mediators but allow outward diffusion of active molecules produced by the cells. Genetic engineering of cells is part of ex vivo gene therapy. The cells may be introduced by various routes into the body and selectively implanted at the site of action. More recently, cell therapies have expanded to replace some conventional procedures. Bone marrow (BM) transplants are being replaced by peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplants. Most of the interest in cell therapy centers on stem cells. The reason for the surge of interest in cell therapy is that cells often do a job better than any chemical could. Cell therapy is described in detail in a special report on this topic (Jain 2013).
KeywordsStem Cell Natural Killer Cell Cancer Stem Cell Umbilical Cord Blood Peripheral Blood Stem Cell
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