False Memories in Bilingual Speakers

  • Donald F. Graves
  • Jeanette Altarriba


Many examples exist in real-world settings that highlight the importance of examining the veracity of recalled memories.


Activation-monitoring framework Bilingual false memories Bilingual memory DRM Paradigm Episodic memory Explicit memory Fuzzy trace theory Gist trace Implicit associate response theory Language dominance Memory consolidation theory 


  1. Albuquerque, P. B., & Pimentel, E. (2005). Recency effect inhibition and the false memory production: A study with Portuguese word lists. Psicologia, Educacao e Cultura, 9, 69–87.Google Scholar
  2. Altarriba, J., & Basnight-Brown, D. M. (2007). Methodological considerations in performing semantic and translation priming experiments across languages. Behavior Research Methods, 39(8), 1–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altarriba, J., Kroll, J., Sholl, A., & Rayner, K. (1996). The influence of lexical and conceptual constraints on reading mixed-language sentences: Evidence from eye-fixation and naming times. Memory & Cognition, 24, 477–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Altarriba, J., & Mathis, K. M. (1997). Conceptual and lexical development in second language acquisition. Journal of Memory and Language, 36(4), 550–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Altarriba, J., & Soltano, E. G. (1996). Repetition blindness and bilingual memory: Token individuation for translation equivalents. Memory & Cognition, 24, 700–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anastasi, J. S., De Leon, A., & Rhodes, M. G. (2005a). Normative data for semantically associated Spanish word lists that create false memories. Behavior Research Methods, 37, 631–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anastasi, J. S., Rhodes, M. G., Marquez, S., & Velino, V. (2005b). The incidence of false memories in native and non-native speakers. Memory, 13, 815–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson, J. R. (1974). Retrieval of propositional information from long-term memory. Cognitive Psychology, 6, 451–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Andrews, S. (1992). Frequency and neighborhood effects on lexical access: Lexical similarity or orthographic redundancy? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 18, 234–254.Google Scholar
  10. Bartolotti, J., & Marian, V. (2012). Bilingualism: Structure, access, and processing. In J. Altarriba & L. Isurin (Eds.), Memory, language, and bilingualism: Theoretical and applied approaches (pp. 7–47). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beato, M. S., & Diez, E. (2011). False recognition production indexes in Spanish for 60 DRM lists with three critical words. Behavior Research Methods, 43, 499–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brainerd, C. J., & Reyna, V. F. (1990). Gist is the grist: Fuzzy-trace theory and the new intuitionism. Developmental Review, 10, 3–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brainerd, C. J., & Reyna, V. F. (2002). Fuzzy-trace theory and false memory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 164–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brainerd, C. J., & Reyna, V. F. (2005). The science of false memory. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cabeza, R., & Lennartson, E. R. (2005). False memory across languages: Implicit associative response vs. fuzzy trace views. Memory, 13, 1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Casey, S., & Emmorey, K. (2008). Co-speech gesture in bimodal bilinguals. Language and Cognitive Processes, 24(2), 290–312.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Deese, J. (1959). On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 17–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dijkstra, T., & van Hell, J. (2003). Testing the language mode hypothesis using trilinguals. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 6, 2–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Duyck, W., Van Assche, E., Drieghe, D., & Hartsuiker, R. J. (2007). Visual word recognition by bilinguals in a sentence context: Evidence for nonselective lexical access. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 33, 663–679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Emmorey, K., Borinstein, H. B., Thompson, R., & Gollan, T. H. (2008). Bimodal bilingualism. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11, 43–61.Google Scholar
  21. Fazendeiro, T., Winkielman, P., Luo, C., & Lorah, C. (2005). False recognition across meaning, language, and stimulus format: Conceptual relatedness and the feeling of familiarity. Memory & Cognition, 33, 249–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gallo, D. A. (2006). False memory research in DRM and related tasks. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  23. Gallo, D., Roediger, H., & McDermott, K. (2001). Associative false recognition occurs without strategic criterion shifts. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 8, 579–586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. García-Bajos, E., & Migueles, M. (1997). Falsas memorias en el recuerdo y reconcimiento de palabras [False memories in the recall and recognition of words.] Estudios de Psicologia, 58, 3–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hege, A. C. G., & Dodson, C. S. (2004). Why distinctive information reduces false memories: Evidence for both impoverished relational-encoding and distinctiveness heuristic accounts. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 30, 787–795.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Howe, M. L. (2005). Children (but not adults) can inhibit false memories. Psychological Science, 16, 927–931.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Howe, M. L. (2006). Developmentally invariant dissociations in children’s true and false memories: Not all relatedness is created equal. Child Development, 77, 1112–1123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Howe, M. L., Gagnon, N., & Thouas, L. (2008). Development of false memories in bilingual children and adults. Journal of Memory and Language, 58, 669–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Howe, M. L., Wimmer, M. C., Gagnon, N., & Plumpton, S. (2009). An associative-activation theory of children’s and adults’ memory illusions. Journal of Memory and Language, 60, 229–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kawasaki-Miyaji, Y., & Yama, H. (2006). The difference between implicit and explicit associative processes at study in creating false memories in the DRM paradigm. Memory, 14, 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kawasaki-Miyaji, Y., Inoue, T., & Yama, H. (2003). Cross-language false recognition: How do Japanese-dominant bilinguals process two languages: Japanese and English? Psychologia, 46, 255–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Knott, L. M., Dewhurst, S. A., & Howe, M. L. (2012). What factors underlie associative and categorical memory illusions? The roles of backward associative strength and interitem connectivity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38, 229–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Kolodner, J. (1983). Reconstructive memory: A computer model. Cognitive Science, 7(4), 281–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kroll, J. F., & de Groot, A. M. B. (1997). Lexical and conceptual memory in the bilingual: Mapping from to meaning in two languages. In A. M. D. de Groot & J. F. Kroll (Eds.), Tutorials in bilingualism: Psycholinguistics perspectives (pp. 169–199). Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  35. Loftus, E. F. (1997). Memories for a past that never was. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 6, 60–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Loftus, E. F., & Palmer, J. C. (1974). Reconstruction of automobile destruction: An example of the interaction between language and memory. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 13, 585–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mao, W. B., Yang, Z. L., & Wang, L. S. (2010). Modality effect in false recognition: Evidence from Chinese characters. International Journal of Psychology, 45, 4–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Marian, V., & Spivey, M. J. (2003a). Bilingual and monolingual processing of competing lexical items. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 173–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Marian, V., & Spivey, M. J. (2003b). Competing activation in bilingual language processing: Within- and between-language competition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 6, 97–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Marmolejo, G., Diliberto-Macaluso, K. A., & Altarriba, J. (2009). False memory in bilinguals: Does switching languages increase false memories? The American Journal of Psychology, 122, 1–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. McDermott, K. B. (1997). Priming on perceptual implicit memory tests can be achieved through presentation of associates. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 4(4), 582–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Moscovitch, M., Rosenbaum, R. S., Gilboa, A., et al. (2005). Functional neuroanatomy of remote episodic, semantic and spatial memory: A unified account based on multiple trace theory. Journal of Anatomy, 207, 35–66.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Nadel, L., Samsonovich, A., Ryan, L., & Moscovitch, M. (2000). Multiple trace theory of human memory: Computational, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological results. Hippocampus, 10, 352–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Paller, K. (1997). Consolidating dispersed neocortical memories: The missing link in amnesia. Memory, 5, 73–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pavlenko, A. (2000). New approaches to concepts in bilingual memory. Bilingualism: Language & Cognition, 3, 1–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pérez-Mata, M. N., Read, J. D., & Diges, M. (2002). Effects of divided attention and word concreteness on correct recall and false memory reports. Memory, 10(3), 161–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pimentel, E., & Albuquerque, P. B. (2013). Effect of divided attention on the production of false memories in the DRM paradigm: A study of dichotic listening and shadowing. Psicológica, 34, 285–298.Google Scholar
  48. Roediger, H. L., & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 803–814.Google Scholar
  49. Roediger, H. L., Watson, J. M., McDermott, K. B., & Gallo, D. A. (2001). Factors that determine false recall: A multiple regression analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8, 385–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rosenbaum, R. S., Kohler, S., Schacter, D. L., et al. (2005). The case of K.C.: Contributions of a memory-impaired person to memory theory. Neuropsychologia, 43, 989–2012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Russell, W. A., & Jenkins, J. J. (1954). The complete Minnesota norms for responses to 100 words from Kent–Rosanoff word association test (Tech. Rep. No. 11, Contract N8-ONR-66216, ONR). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  52. Sahlin, B. H., Harding, M. C., & Seamon, J. G. (2005). When do false memories cross language boundaries in Spanish-English bilinguals? Memory & Cognition, 33, 1414–1421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Scoville, W. B., & Milner, B. (1957). Loss of recent memory after bilateral hippocampal lesions. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 20, 11–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Smith, M. C. (1997). How do bilinguals access lexical information? In A. M. B. de Groot & J. F. Kroll (Eds.), Tutorials in bilingualism: Psycholinguistic perspectives (pp. 145–168). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.Google Scholar
  55. Spivey, M. J., & Marian, V. (1999). Cross talk between native and second languages: Partial activation of an irrelevant lexicon. Psychological Science, 10(3), 281–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Stadler, M. A., Roediger, H. L. III, & McDermott, K. B. (1999). Norms for word lists that create false memories. Memory & Cognition, 27, 494–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Stein, L. M., & Pergher, G. K. (2001). Criando falsas memórias em adultos por meio de palavras associadas [Creating false memories in adults using associated word lists]. Psicologia: Reflexao e Critica, 14, 353–366.Google Scholar
  58. Squire, L. R., Cohen, N. J., & Nadel, L. (1984). The medial temporal region and memory consolidation: A new hypothesis. In H. Weingartner & E. Parker (Eds.), Memory consolidation (pp. 185–210). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  59. Tanenhaus, M. K., Magnuson, J. S., Dahan, D., & Chambers, C. (2000). Eye movements and lexical access in spoken-language comprehension: Evaluating a linking hypothesis between fixations and linguistic processing. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 29, 557–580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ullman, M. T. (2004). Contributions of memory circuits to language: The declarative/procedural model. Cognition, 92, 231–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Underwood, B. J. (1965). False recognition produced by implicit verbal responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70(1), 122–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wimmer, M. C., & Howe, M. L. (2009). The development of automatic associative processes and children’s false memories. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 104, 447–465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zeelenberg, R., & Pecher, D. (2002). False memories and lexical decision: Even twelve primes do not cause long-term semantic priming. Acta Psychologica, 109, 269–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zeelenberg, R., Plomp, G., & Raaijmakers, J. G. W., (2003). Can false memories be created through nonconscious processes? Consciousness & Cognition, 12, 403–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Suggested Readings

  1. Altarriba, J., & Santiago-Rivera, A. L. (1994). Current perspectives on using linguistic and cultural factors in counseling the bilingual Spanish-speaking client. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 388–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bauer, L. M., Olheiser, E. L., Altarriba, J., & Landi, N. (2009). Word type effects in false recall: Concrete, abstract, and emotion word critical lures. American Journal of Psychology, 122, 469–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Brainerd, C. J., Reyna, V. F., & Ceci, S. J. (2008). Developmental reversals in false memory: A review of data and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 343–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Marian, V., & Fausey, C. M. (2006). Language-dependent memory in bilingual learning. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20, 1025–1047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Internet Sites Related to False Memory Research

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald F. Graves
    • 1
  • Jeanette Altarriba
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity at Albany, State University of New YorkAlbanyUSA

Personalised recommendations