Normative Shifts Within International Relations

Part of the Springer Series in Transitional Justice book series (SSTJ, volume 7)


Previous redress and reparation movements established a normative foundation upon which subsequent movements would be built. This foundation would be utilized as a reference point for the types and forms of redress and reparation that victims could potentially achieve. Of the three inter-related norms discussed in previous chapters—prohibition of atrocities, individual accountability, and redress and reparation—each evolved during the Cold War; yet, the norms were also constrained by bipolar politics. Chapter 5 will provide context on how redress and reparation transitioned from a West German response to the Holocaust to an international phenomena. In addition, changing norms regarding race and gender is also explored.

The emergence of the Cold War altered the political opportunity structures available to norm entrepreneurs making it extremely difficult to obtain international support for accountability, let alone redress and reparation. During the Cold War, Superpower tensions won primacy; however, the rise of transitional justice in the 1980s created a political space in which accountability norms and redress and reparation norms could be developed. As the Cold War thawed the idea of coming to terms with the past truly began to flourish and expand outside of the context of defeated nations or regime change. This emerging concept of reparation politics was based not on coercion, but on negotiated agreements between the state and previously victimized individuals.


Redress and reparation norms Cold War Norm entrepreneurs Basic Principles and Guidelines Gender norms Racial norms United Nations Human rights treaties Norm emergence Norm cascade 


  1. Bassiouni, M. Cheriff. 2003. Preface to State sovereignty and international criminal law: Versailles to Rome. By Jackson Nyamuya Maogoto. New York: Transnational Publishers.Google Scholar
  2. Berg, Manfred, and Bernd Schaefer. 2009. Introduction. In Historical justice in international perspective: How societies are trying to right the wrongs of the past, ed. Manfred Berg and Bernd Schaefer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Van Boven, Theo. 2005, Dec. 16. Introduction. Basic principles and guidelines on the right to a remedy and reparation for victims of gross violations of international human rights law and serious violations of international humanitarian law. New York. Accessed June 15, 2013.
  4. Brooks, Roy L. 1999. The age of apology. In When sorry isn’t enough: The controversy over apologies and reparations for human injustices, ed. Roy L. Brooks. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Chamberlin, William Henry. 1949, Apr. American-Soviet relations since Yalta. Russian Review 8 (2): 95–101.Google Scholar
  6. Chamberlin, William Henry. 1950, Apr. The cold war: A balance sheet. Russian Review 9 (2).Google Scholar
  7. Ellickson, Robert C. 2001. The evolution of social norms: A perspective from the legal academy. In Social norms, ed. Michael Hechter and Karl-Dieter Opp. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  8. Falk, Richard. 2006. Reparations, international law, and global justice: A new frontier. In The handbook of reparations, ed. Pablo De Greiff. 478–503. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Finnemore, Martha, and Kathryn Sikkink. 1998. International norm dynamics and political change. International Organization 52 (4): 887–917.Google Scholar
  10. Gilbert, Martin. 1989. The Second World War: A complete history. New York: Henry Holt.Google Scholar
  11. Grotius, Hugo. 2012. On the laws of war and peace. Student ed., (Annotated and edited by) ed. Stephen Neff. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Hallett, Nicole. 2009. The evolution of gender crimes in international law. In Plight and fate of women during and following genocide, ed. Samuel Totten. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  13. Hayner, Priscilla B. 2002. Unspeakable truths: Facing the challenge of truth commissions. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Inal, Tuba. 2013. Looting and rape in wartime: Law and change in international relations. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  15. International humanitarian law—treaties and documents. 2013. The International Committee of the Red Cross. Accessed June 7, 2013.
  16. Keylor, William R. 2001. The twentieth-century world: An international history. 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. King, Martin Luther Jr. 1960, Sept. 6. The rising tide of racial consciousness. Address at the Golden Anniversary Conference of the National Urban League. New York.Google Scholar
  18. Korey, William. 2001. An epitaph for Raphael Lemkin. New York: Jacob Blaustein Institute for the Advancement of Human Rights.Google Scholar
  19. Maogoto, Jackson Nyamuya. 2003. State sovereignty and international criminal law: Versailles to Rome. New York: Transnational Publishers.Google Scholar
  20. Mearsheimer, John. 2001. The tragedy of great power politics. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  21. Meisler, Stanley. 1995. United Nations: The first fifty years. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.Google Scholar
  22. Parker, Karen, and Jennifer F. Chew. 1994. Compensation for Japan’s World War II war-rape victims. Hastings International and Comparative Law Review 17.Google Scholar
  23. Protocol of the Proceedings of the Crimea Conference. 1947. The International Law Quarterly 1 (3, Autumn): 407–414.Google Scholar
  24. Rifkind, Robert. 2001. Introduction to an epitaph for Raphael Lemkin. (by William Korey). New York: Jacob Blaustein Institute for the Advancement of Human Rights.Google Scholar
  25. Shelton, Diana. 2005. The United Nations principles and guidelines on reparations: Context and contents. In Out of the ashes: Reparation for victims of gross and systematic human rights violations, ed. K. De Feyter, S. Parmentier, M. Bossuyt, and P. Lemmens. Oxford: Intersentia.Google Scholar
  26. Sikkink, Kathryn. 2011. The justice cascade: How human rights prosecutions are changing world politics. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  27. Staub, Ervin. 1989. The roots of evil: The origins of genocide and other group violence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. United Nations. 2013a. History of the Document. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Accessed June 1, 2013.
  29. United Nations. 2013b. The mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion of truth, justice, reparation and guarantees of non-recurrence. Accessed June 1, 2013.
  30. United Nations. 2013c. The World Conference against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. Accessed June 1, 2013.
  31. United Nations. 2013d. The United Nations at a glance. Accessed June 1, 2013.
  32. United Nations Economic and Social Council. 1989, Nov. 13. Report of the sub-commission on prevention of discrimination and protection of minorities on its forty-first session. E/CN.4/1990/2.Google Scholar
  33. United Nations Economic and Social Council, Commission on Human Rights Report on the Sixty-First Session. 2005. (14 March–22 April 2005), E/2005/23, E/CN.4/2005/135. Geneva: United Nations.Google Scholar
  34. United Nations Treaty Collection, International Convention on the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination. 2013a. (status update). Accessed July 1, 2013.
  35. United Nations Treaty Collection. 2013b. Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women. (status update). Accessed July 1, 2013.
  36. White, J. Patrick. 1950, May 31. New light on Yalta. Far Eastern Survey 19 (11): 105–112.Google Scholar
  37. Yoshiaki Yoshimi. 2000. Comfort women: Sexual slavery in the Japanese military during World War II. Suzanne O’Brien (trans), New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Weber State UniversityOgdenUSA

Personalised recommendations