Normative Shifts Within International Relations
Previous redress and reparation movements established a normative foundation upon which subsequent movements would be built. This foundation would be utilized as a reference point for the types and forms of redress and reparation that victims could potentially achieve. Of the three inter-related norms discussed in previous chapters—prohibition of atrocities, individual accountability, and redress and reparation—each evolved during the Cold War; yet, the norms were also constrained by bipolar politics. Chapter 5 will provide context on how redress and reparation transitioned from a West German response to the Holocaust to an international phenomena. In addition, changing norms regarding race and gender is also explored.
The emergence of the Cold War altered the political opportunity structures available to norm entrepreneurs making it extremely difficult to obtain international support for accountability, let alone redress and reparation. During the Cold War, Superpower tensions won primacy; however, the rise of transitional justice in the 1980s created a political space in which accountability norms and redress and reparation norms could be developed. As the Cold War thawed the idea of coming to terms with the past truly began to flourish and expand outside of the context of defeated nations or regime change. This emerging concept of reparation politics was based not on coercion, but on negotiated agreements between the state and previously victimized individuals.
KeywordsRedress and reparation norms Cold War Norm entrepreneurs Basic Principles and Guidelines Gender norms Racial norms United Nations Human rights treaties Norm emergence Norm cascade
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