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The German Genocides and Subsequent Redress and Reparation Movements

Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Transitional Justice book series (SSTJ, volume 7)

Abstract

Chapter 4 briefly examines the German genocides where the Nazis systematically murdered an estimated 11 million civilians; of whom 6 million were European Jews and approximately half to one and a half million European Roma. The chapter then moves to examine the two subsequent redress and reparation movements (RRMs).

The initial concerns of the movement were to ensure that the proper response to the crimes perpetrated by the Nazi regime were implemented, including the return of stolen goods and property (restitution) and damages due to imprisonment (compensation). Each victim group attempted to mobilize in order for their claims to be recognized and victimhood established. The first step was to create legal structures that would address Nazi crimes. Once redress and reparation organizations succeeded with their goals, a legal precedent had been established.

The Jewish RRM is the most well-known; it emerged first, having mobilized towards the beginning of World War II, with norm entrepreneurs and elite allies both internationally and domestically. The Romani RRM is less well known and has been described as forgotten in historical memory. Norm entrepreneurs for Romani victims have struggled for recognition and sustained mobilization, with inclusion in redress and reparation coming decades later.

This fight for redress and reparations are central to this book, as the concept of individual reparations to those victimized was unprecedented. Both RRMs will be explored and analyzed including key differences in mobilization, recognition, and achievement of redress.

Keywords

Germany Holocaust Genocide Jews Roma Norm entrepreneurs Claims conference Israel Luxembourg agreement Restitution Compensation Reparations Adenauer Nuremberg trials 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Weber State UniversityOgdenUSA

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